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Recovery Strategy for Multi-Species at Risk in Maritime Meadows associated with Garry Oak Ecosystems in Canada (Proposed)
- Executive Summary
- Multi-Species Recovery - 1.6 Common Limitations and Threats
- Multi-Species Recovery - 1.7 Critical habitat
- Multi-Species Recovery - 1.8 Recovery Feasibility
- Multi-Species Recovery - 1.9 Multiple Species Recovery
- Species Descriptions - 1.10 Island marble
- Species Descriptions - 1.11 Taylor's checkerspot
- Species Descriptions - 1.12 Bearded-owl clover
- Species Descriptions - 1.13 Bear's-foot sanicle
- Species Descriptions - 1.14 Coastal Scouler's catchfly
- Species Descriptions - 1.15 Golden paintbrush
- Species Descriptions - 1.16 Prairie lupine
- Species Descriptions - 1.17 Purple sanicle
- Species Descriptions - 1.18 Seaside birds-foot lotus
- References Cited
- Appendix A - Record of Experts Consulted
- Appendix B - Members of the Plants at Risk Recovery Implementation Group of the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team
- Appendix C - Members of the Invertebrates at Risk Recovery Implementation Group of the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team
- List of Tables and Figures
1.17 Purple sanicle Sanicula bipinnatifida
- 1.17.1 The species
- 1.17.2 Distribution
- 1.17.3 Population and distribution trend
- 1.17.4 Biotic and abiotic features of habitat
- 1.17.5 Annual cycle
- 1.17.6 Biologically limiting factors
Assessment Summary – May 2001
Common name: purple sanicle
Scientific name: Sanicula bipinnatifida
Reason for designation: Geographically restricted species with small area of occupancy in Garry oak communities within a major urbanized region at risk from habitat loss and degradation and impact of exotic plants.
Occurrence: British Columbia
Status history: Designated Threatened in May 2001.
1.17.1 The species
Sanicula bipinnatifida Hooker is a well-delineated taxon as described in the status report (Penny and Douglas 2000). Kartesz (1994) does not recognize any infraspecific taxa within this species.
Purple sanicle is an erect (10-60 cm tall), branching, taprooted perennial. The basal and lower stem leaves are pinnately divided with a toothed, winged leaf axis. The inflorescence is several to many compact umbels with purple corollas and an inconspicuous involucel. The seeds are egg-shaped schizocarps covered with hooked prickles. Purple sanicle can be distinguished from other sanicle species by its inconspicuous involucel and deep purple flowers (Douglas et al. 1998a; Penny and Douglas 2001).
Purple sanicleranges from southern Vancouver Island, south along the Pacific coast and interior valleys to Baja California (Figure 8). The species is not ranked (SNR) in California, Oregon and Washington (Natureserve 2004). The Georgia Basin-Puget Sound populations appear to be disjunct, by about 100 km, from the main populations, which reach their northern limits along the Columbia River.
Figure 8. Global and Canadian distribution of purple sanicle
(Global distribution on left with uncertain distribution in Baja Claifornia; Canadian distribution on right with stars showing location of disjunct population of uncertain status)
In Canada, purple sanicleis restricted to a small area of southeast Vancouver Island and the southern Gulf Islands. Based on the most recent records the extent of occurrence is estimated at approximately 3,500 km² and the Canadian area of occupancy 2 to 3 ha (BC Conservation Data Centre records 2004; Fairbarns pers. obs. 2004).
1.17.3 Population and Distribution Trend
The COSEWIC status report describes fourteen extant 'populations', five that have become extirpated and seven with status unknown (Table 16) (Penny and Douglas 2000).
Describing populations separated by less than 1,000 m as subpopulations (the default BC Conservation Data Centre criterion for recognizing distinct populations) in addition to subsequent surveys confirm there are there are 20 populations presumed extant, and 5-6 which are presumed extirpated.
|Land tenure||Data from Status Report||Subsequent Data|
|Date||Observer||# Plants||Date||Observer||# Plants|
|Flora Islet||Provincial ecological reserve||1976||Pojar||unknown||no subsequent data|
|Brown Ridge, Saturna Island||private property||1996||Janszen||140||no subsequent data|
|East Point, Saturna Island||Federal land managed by Canada Coast Guard||extirpated||presumed extirpated|
|Dionisio Park, Galiano Island||Provincial park||1993||Roemer||1||no subsequent data|
|Little D'Arcy Is.||Private property||1977||A. Ceska||unknown||no subsequent data|
|Alpha Islet||Provincial ecological reserve||1981||A. Ceska||unknown||2002||A. Ceska||11|
|Discovery Is.||Provincial park||not reported||2002||Fairbarns||5|
|Trial Island||Provincial land leased to a radio-communications corporation.||Not reported||2004||Fairbarns||about 40|
|Tzuhalem E.R.||Provincial ecological reserve||1999||Penny||94||no subsequent data|
|Tzuhalem I.R.||Federal Indian Reserve||1999||Penny & Douglas||75||no subsequent data|
|Cedar Hill||unknown||1897||Macoun||extirp.||synonymous with Mount Douglas?|
|Mount Douglas (synonymous with Blenkinsop Rd. and Cedar Hill?)||Municipality of Saanich (designated as an urban park)||1953||Melburn||unknown||2004||Fairbarns||2|
|Cloverdale Dist.||Unknown||1919||Newcombe||extirpated||Presumed extirpated|
|Ten Mile Point||unknown||1942||Eastham||unknown||presumed extirpated|
|Blenkinsop Rd.||unknown||1939||unknown||unknown||synonymous with Mount Douglas?|
|Glencoe Cove||Municipality of Saanich (designated as an urban park)||1999||Penny||6||no subsequent data|
|Rithet's Bog||Municipality of Saanich (designated as an urban park)||1999||Penny and Hartwell||24||2004||Ansell||~ 20|
|Uplands Park||Municipality of Oak Bay (designated as an urban park)||1983||Van Dieren||extirp.||2004||Fairbarns||Extirpated sub-population from same population as Cattle Point|
|Cattle Point||Municipality of Oak Bay (designated as an urban park)||1999||Penny & Douglas||215||2004||Fairbarns||> 300|
|Holland Point||City of Victoria (designated as an urban park)||1999||Penny||63||no subsequent data|
|Macaulay Point||Federal lands owned by Department of National Defence but leased to Municipality of Esquimalt for park use||1999||Penny & Donovan||1014||no subsequent data|
|Golf Hill||Federal land owned by Department of National Defence||1976||A. Ceska||extirp.||Presumed extirpated |
same population as Macaulay Point <1 km away
|Near Francis King||private property||1999||Penny||13||1999 Roemer 12|
|Thetis Lake||Capital Regional District land designated as park||2000||Ussery & Fleming||152||no subsequent data|
|Mill Hill||Capital Regional District land designated as park||1999||Penny & Fleming||127||2003||Roemer||309|
|Neild Road||private property||1999||Penny||630||no subsequent data|
|Fort Rodd Hill National Historic Site||Federal land managed by Parks Canada Agency||1966||Ashlee||unknown||2002||Fairbarns||extirpated|
|Albert Head||Federal land owned by Department on National Defence||1999||Penny & Donovan||1,014||no subsequent data|
The newly recorded subpopulations add to the total estimated population but there is no accurate estimate of the reproductive population. The COSEWIC status report estimates a total population size of 3,692 plants, which includes both flowering and non-flowering individuals.
1.17.4 Biotic and abiotic features of habitat
The habitat of purple sanicle consists of mesic maritime meadows in addition to upland meadows. The information in the COSEWIC status report has been supplemented with information from recent vegetation sampling (Fairbarns pers. obs. 2004). These meadows are often less than 30 m above sea level although populations are known from elevations of 100-300 m at Mill Hill, Mount Tzuhalem and Brown Ridge as well as the extirpated population presumed to occur at Mount Douglas. Their soils are over 30 cm deep and remain moist throughout the winter months but dry to the permanent wilting point by early summer. The sites have never been ploughed or hayed, but several have been lightly grazed by livestock and most probably burned in the past.
Trees are sometimes present but their abundance and canopy cover is rarely great due to the combined effects of wind exposure, salt spray and/or the droughty nature of the shallow soils. Shrub cover varies considerably among sites, with the introduced species of Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius), gorse (Ulex europaeus) and tree lupine (Lupinus arboreus) occasionally abundant.
A mix of native and introduced species typically dominates the herb layer. The leading native species are forbs (Puget Sound gumweed [Grindelia integrifolia], barestem desert-parsley [Lomatium nudicaule], bracken fern [Pteridium aquilinum]), although a small component of native graminoids (California brome [Bromus carinatus], California oatgrass [Danthonia californica]) may be present.
Introduced grasses (soft brome [Bromus hordeaceus], orchard grass [Dactylis glomerata], perennial ryegrass [Lolium perenne], barren brome [Vulpia bromoides]), and forbs (hairy cat's ear [Hypochaeris radicata], ribwort plantain [Plantago lanceolata], sheep sorrel [Rumex acetosella], small hop-clover [Trifolium dubium], common vetch [Vicia sativa]) are often present, and any of these may dominate at a given site.
Mosses and lichens are usually sparse in extent.
1.17.5 Annual cycle
Information in the COSEWIC status report has been supplemented by subsequent study of plants at Trial Island and Macaulay Point and observations from other Canadian sites (Fairbarns in. prep. d.).
Established plants resprout in January or February. Plants grow slowly through the late winter and early spring, then grow rapidly in April and early May. Shoots begin to wither and die back as the summer drought begins to take hold in mid-May and most shoots are dead by late June or early July.
Flower buds are usually evident by mid-April and flowering peaks in late April and early May. Green fruit are evident by late May and fruit ripen in June. Fruit are shed slowly and many plants retain up to 20% of their fruit until October. The barbed fruit are dispersed when animals brush against the plants.
1.17.6 Biologically limiting factors
Germination occurs between mid-February and mid-April. Initial seedling mortality may be quite high, with few plants developing true leaves. Only a small proportion of germinants survive the succeeding dormant season.
- Date Modified: