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Rocky Mountain Ridged Mussel (Gonidea Angulata)

Biographical Summary of the Report Writers

Dr. Terrence J. Frest, PhD

Dr. Terry Frest received his PhD in 1983 from the University of Iowa. His dissertation was titled “Studies of Silurian echinoderms.” Since receiving his PhD, Dr. Frest has been an associate professor, lecturing on various topics of paleobiology and malacology. He has also consulted for various state and federal fish and wildlife organizations, providing malacological expertise. He has developed national recovery plans for rare and endangered molluscs (freshwater and terrestrial) and has conducted extensive field surveys of various freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems throughout North America. His malacogical publications date to 1981. Most recently he has been involved with the USDA Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and their attempts to develop and implement management strategies for rare and endangered terrestrial and freshwater molluscs as identified in the Clinton Northwest Forest Plan (ROD 1994). Dr. Frest has prepared COSEWIC-like status reports for numerous species of freshwater and terrestrial molluscs for various agencies including the USDA Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management.


Virgil C. Hawkes, BSc, RPBio

Mr. Hawkes is a Registered Professional Biologist in British Columbia with over 8 years of experience studying the ecology of terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates throughout the Pacific Northwest. In addition to other work with terrestrial mammals, amphibians and reptiles, and forest-related birds, he has developed, implemented, analyzed data, and prepared technical reports for numerous projects relating to terrestrial molluscs throughout Washington, Oregon, and California. He has led field surveys to collect data on the distribution and occurrence of rare and endangered terrestrial molluscs in the Pacific Northwest, including Hemphillia glandulosa and Deroceras hesperium. Currently, Mr. Hawkes is an MSc candidate studying the effects of riparian management zones on wildlife with specific investigations into the responses of terrestrial salamanders to forestry management in the Pacific Northwest.