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Canadian Species at Risk (November 2004)

COSEWIC Assessment Results

The tables that follow (Tables 6-9) are organized by status category and then by taxonomic group. For each species, the information provided includes the common name, scientific name, population name, and range of occurrence in Canada (by province, territory or ocean). The most recent date of assessment by COSEWIC is shown. The symbols on the left provide information on the type of status report used as the basis for reassessment for species evaluated against quantitative criteria (see below), and the symbols on the right provide information on the outcome of status reassessments (see explanation of symbols on page three).

The first COSEWIC "Endangered Species List" was issued in 1978. In 1990, it was decided that all species considered by COSEWIC should be included in this document even if the species were in the Not at Risk or Data Deficient categories. Therefore, this document is divided into four sections. The first section (Table 6) includes species assessed and designated as Extinct.  The second section (Table 7) includes species assessed and designated as Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Special Concern. The third section (Table 8) includes species assessed and found to be in the Not at Risk category. The fourth section (Table 9) includes species considered by COSEWIC and placed in the Data Deficient category because of insufficient scientific information.

Evaluation with COSEWIC's quantitative criteria

COSEWIC has been using quantitative criteria to assess species' risk of extinction since October 1999. These criteria were adapted from the criteria used by the World Conservation Union (IUCN).

Explanation of type of status report symbols for species evaluated using quantitative criteria:

1 or 1+ Assessment based on a new status report or an update status report. A plus sign (+) indicates the report has an addendum or that the report has been modified.

2 or 2+ Species re-assessed using an existing status report. A plus sign (+) indicates the report has an addendum or that the report has been modified.

Range of Occurrence

The geographical distribution of each species is defined in terms of the provinces, territories and oceans in which the species occurs. This information should not be treated as a complete listing of the jurisdictions that may be legally responsible for the conservation and management of a species. Several guidelines are followed when determining the range of occurrence of a species: for birds, it includes the Canadian breeding and wintering distribution; for marine species, it includes the oceans in which the species occurs (Arctic, Pacific or Atlantic); for freshwater species, it includes the province or territory in which the waterbody occurs; and, for species that occur in brackish waters, move between marine and freshwater environments, or move between oceans and land (e.g., Atlantic Walrus), range of occurrence includes a list of both the oceans and provinces in which the species occurs.

Abbreviations for provinces and territories:

AB  : Alberta
BC : British Columbia
MB : Manitoba
NB : New Brunswick
NL : Newfoundland and Labrador
NS  : Nova Scotia
NT : Northwest Territories
NU : Nunavut
ON : Ontario
PE : Prince Edward Island
QC  : Québec
SK : Saskatchewan
YT : Yukon Territory

Table 6. Species assessed and designated Extinct, with range of occurrence (by province, territory or ocean) and date of last assessment. The historical range of occurrence and the approximate date of disappearance are shown (12 species).

EXTINCT CATEGORY (12)
Taxon/ Assessment DetailsCommon NameScientific NamePopulation NameHistorical Range of OccurrenceExtinction DateAssessment Date
Mammals (2)
1   ↔Caribou dawsoni subspeciesRangifer tarandus dawsoni BC1920sMay 2000
2   ↔Mink, SeaMustela macrodon NB NS Atlantic Ocean1894May 2000
Birds (3)
2   ↔Auk, GreatPinguinus impennis QC NB NS NL1844May 2000
2   ↔Duck, LabradorCamptorhynchus labradorius QC NB NS NL1875May 2000
2   ↔Pigeon, PassengerEctopistes migratorius SK MB ON QC NB PE NS1914May 2000
Reptiles (0)
Amphibians (0)
Fishes (5)
2   ↔Cisco, DeepwaterCoregonus johannae ON1952May 2000
2   ↔Dace, Banff LongnoseRhinichthys cataractae smithi AB1986May 2000
2   ↔Stickleback, Benthic Hadley LakeGasterosteus sp. BC1999May 2000
2   ↔Stickleback, Limnetic Hadley LakeGasterosteus sp. BC1999May 2000
2   ↔Walleye, BlueStizostedion vitreum glaucum ON1965May 2000
Arthropods (0)
Molluscs (1)
2   ↔Limpet, EelgrassLottia alveus alveus QC NS NL1929May 2000
Vascular Plants (0)
Mosses (1)
Moss, Macoun's ShiningNeomacounia nitida ONnot observed since 1864Nov 2002
Lichens (0)