Warning This Web page has been archived on the Web.

Archived Content

Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards, as per the Policy on Communications and Federal Identity.

Skip booklet index and go to page content

Consultation workbook on the addition of narwhal and two bowhead whale populations to the SARA List: Narwhal, Hudson Bay- Foxe Basin Bowhead whales, Davis Strait-Baffin Bay Bowhead Whales

CONSULTATION WORKBOOK on the addition of narwhal and two bowhead whale populations to the SARA List

 

Narwhal

       Narwhal

Hudson Bay-Foxe Basin Bowhead Whales

Davis Strait-Baffin Bay Bowhead Whales

 

Bowhead

October 2005

 

                                                                     

Please send your comments on this consultation to Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Central and Arctic Region to the following e-mail address:

    fwisar@dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Or by regular mail to the following postal address:

Central and Arctic Region

SARA Coordinator

Freshwater Institute

Fisheries & Oceans Canada

501 University Avenue

Winnipeg, Manitoba

R3T 2N6  

To request for additional copies of the workbook, please call 1-866-715-7272.

For more information on the Species at Risk Act, please visit the Public Registry

For more information on species at risk, please visit the Fisheries & Oceans Canada aquatic Species at Risk website:

or Environment Canada’s Species at Risk website

Information on species at risk is also available on the website of the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC)

Return to Table of Contents

Adding a Species or population to the SARA list

Introduction

The Species at Risk Act (SARA) was proclaimed on June 5, 2003, by the Government of Canada. SARA provides a framework for actions across Canada to promote the survival of wildlife species and the protection of our natural heritage. It sets out how to decide which species are a priority for action and what to do to protect a species. It identifies ways governments, organizations and individuals can work together, and it establishes penalties for failures to obey the law.

Two federal Ministers are responsible for the administration of SARA. The Minister of Fisheries and Oceans is the competent Minister for aquatic species. The Minister of the Environment is the competent Minister for all other species at risk, including those found in national parks, national historic sites and other protected heritage areas. The Minister of the Environment is also responsible for the overall administration of the Act.

The Act protects the plants and animals included on a list within SARA (Schedule 1).  Schedule 1 is also referred to as the List of Wildlife Species at Risk and will be referred to as the SARA List in the rest of this workbook. Species are put on the SARA List as a result of the work of the scientists and conservationists who are members of the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). They conduct scientific assessments of the status of species. Community and Aboriginal traditional knowledge are also included in species assessments when available. The Government then decides which species are added to the SARA List as such action could have economic or social implications.

233 species were included on the SARA List of the Act when Parliament passed SARA in December 2002. COSEWIC had already assessed these species as “at risk” using new updated assessment criteria and current information. When the Act came into force in June 2003, these species were on the initial SARA List.

Since then, COSEWIC has identified more species that are at risk. The Minister of Environment is now considering recommending those species for addition to the SARA List. As part of that process, the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans is currently carrying out public consultations on the narwhals and two populations of bowhead whales that live in the eastern Arctic. The purpose of this consultation workbook is to invite Canadians to let us know whether these populations should be added to the SARA List.

Background

 The Species at Risk Act

The Species at Risk Act strengthens the Government of Canada’s ability to protect Canadian plants and animals in danger of becoming extinct. This protection applies only to species which are included on the SARA List. Adding a species to the SARA List requires a two-step process. The first step is identifying a species at risk and the second step is the listing of that species.

Identifying a species at risk

 COSEWIC is an independent group whose mandate is to assess the status of plants and animals in Canada and identify those at risk. The committee is made up of biologists, ecologists, geneticists and individuals with Aboriginal traditional knowledge who are experts on wildlife species at risk. Members come from many areas, including government, universities, Aboriginal organizations and non-government agencies.

COSEWIC assesses the biological status of a species using the best available information on the biological status of the species. It reviews research, considers community and Aboriginal traditional knowledge, and applies strict assessment criteria. COSEWIC meets once a year to assess the biological status of species. Species that COSEWIC considers to be “at risk” are designated to one of the following categories:

Extinct –A wildlife species that no longer exists.

 Extirpated – A wildlife species that is no longer found in the wild in Canada but may be found elsewhere.

Endangered – A wildlife species facing imminent extirpation or extinction.

Threatened – A wildlife species likely to become Endangered if nothing is done to reverse the factors threatening it.

Special Concern – A wildlife species that may become a Threatened or Endangered species because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats.

 Listing a species at risk

 The process of listing a species begins when COSEWIC submits its assessment to the Minister of the Environment. Upon receiving the assessment the Minister has 90 days to issue a Response Statement on how he or she intends to respond to the assessment and, to the extent possible, provide time lines for action. The Minister then forwards the species assessment to Governor in Council (GIC)[1], along with his or her recommendation on whether GIC should…

a) Accept the COSEWIC assessment and add the species to the SARA List;

b) Not add the species to the SARA List; or,

c) Refer the matter back to COSEWIC for further information or consideration.

GIC has nine months after receiving the COSEWIC assessment to decide whether the species should be added to the SARA List. If a decision has not been made within that time period, the Minister of the Environment will add the species to the SARA List.

What does it mean when a species or population is added to the SARA List?

The amount of protection the SARA provides depends on the assessed category. It is an offence to kill, harm, harass, possess, collect, buy, sell or trade an individual of an Extirpated, Endangered and Threatened species. It is also illegal under the Act to damage or destroy the residences of Endangered and Threatened species, or for Extirpated species if a recovery strategy has recommended the introduction of the species into the wild in Canada. These prohibitions do not apply to species of Special Concern. SARA protects all listed birds covered under the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994, all listed aquatic species and all listed species on federal lands. The provinces and territories are responsible for making sure that all listed Extirpated, Endangered and Threatened species that are located outside federal lands receive adequate protection. However, if that protection is not given, the federal government can intervene, using “safety-net” provisions of SARA, but only after consulting with the province or territory concerned and carrying out public consultations.

The ministers of the Environment and of Fisheries and Oceans can, under special circumstances, make exceptions to SARA. For example, they can issue a permit that would allow a qualified scientist to carry out a research project that benefits a listed species or is required to enhance its chances of survival in the wild.  Exceptions can only be made if all reasonable alternatives have been considered and if the Minister can be assured that the survival or recovery of the species will not be jeopardized.

 Recovery strategies and action plans for Extirpated, Endangered and Threatened species

If a wildlife species is added to the SARA List as an Extirpated, Endangered or Threatened species, the competent Minister must prepare a strategy for its recovery.  Recovery Strategies must be completed and made available on the SARA Public Registry, for public review, within one year for newly listed Endangered species and within two years for Threatened and Extirpated species. The Recovery Strategy addresses known threats to the species, identifies critical habitat to the extent possible and gaps in knowledge. It also sets a recovery goal. The Recovery Strategy is followed up with one or more Action Plans that identify ways to reduce threats to the species and protect its critical habitat, as well as other measures to be taken to implement the Recovery Strategy.

The Recovery Strategy and Actions Plans are prepared in cooperation and consultation with Wildlife Management Boards, Aboriginal communities that are directly affected by the Recovery Strategy, and jurisdictions such as provincial or territorial governments who are responsible for the management of the species. Landowners and others who are directly affected will also be consulted.

Management plans for Species of Special Concern

 If a wildlife species is listed as a species of Special Concern, the responsible Minister must prepare a Management Plan. It must be posted on the SARA Public Registry within three years of the species being added to the SARA List. The Management Plan identifies conservation measures aimed at protecting the species and its habitat. A

Management Plan is prepared in cooperation with groups directly affected by the plans, including Wildlife Management Boards and Aboriginal organizations. To the extent possible, landowners, land users and others who may be directly affected by the plans will also be consulted.

Public Consultation

 Why are we having these consultations?

Before the Minister of the Environment makes a recommendation to GIC about whether to add a species to the SARA List, he or she will consider the balance between the social and economic benefits and costs associated with adding the species to the SARA List and the potential consequences for the species and Canadians of not adding it. The Government will meet with wildlife management boards, Aboriginal groups or organizations and other members of the public who have either a direct interest in the species under consideration or wish to comment on the issue. This includes – but is not limited to – landowners, land users, non-government environmental organizations, industries and industry groups. This consultation workbook is another way in which you can let us know what you think.

Comments received from Canadians will be carefully reviewed, evaluated and documented in a Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement (RIAS). The RIAS is an important part of the federal government’s regulatory process. In addition, a draft Order (an instrument that serves notice of a decision taken by the executive arm of government) proposing to add the species to the SARA List is prepared. This draft Order along with the RIAS will be published in the Canada Gazette Part I for a period of time to allow Canadians another opportunity to comment. The Minister of the Environment will take into consideration all received comments before recommending to the GIC whether to add the species to the SARA List or not. The GIC’s decision will be published in the Canada Gazette Part II and made available on the SARA Public Registry.

Invitation to submit comments

Consultations concerning adding species to the SARA List are part of the Government’s commitment to encourage public participation in programs designed to protect Canadian plants and animals and their habitat. Narwhals and two populations of bowhead whales (Hudson Bay-Foxe Basin and Davis Strait-Baffin Bay populations) have been recently reassessed by COSEWIC as species at risk and are being considered for addition to the SARA List. We welcome your comments about whether these narwhal and bowhead whale populations should be added to the SARA List.

A questionnaire has been provided near the end of this workbook. Please fill it out and mail your answers and comments to

Central & Arctic Region SARA Coordinator
Freshwater Institute
Fisheries & Oceans Canada
501 University Avenue
Winnipeg MB    R3T 2N6

or

fwisar@dfo-mpo.gc.ca

The deadline for submission of comments is March 31, 2006.

Sara Public Registry

The SARA Public Registry, available on the Internet, is a complete source of information on topics covered by the Act and offers access to public records concerning the administration of SARA. It is a key instrument that allows the government to respect its commitment to support public contribution in the environmental decision-making process. The Public Registry can be found at the following address:

http://www.sararegistry.gc.ca



[1] Governor in Council is the Governor General of Canada acting on the advice of the Queen’s Privy Council of Canada (i.e. Cabinet).

Return to Table of Contents

Information about the population

Narwhal

Status:  Special Concern

Last Examination by COSEWIC:  Nov 2004

 Biology

The narwhal, Monodon monoceros, is a medium-sized toothed whale that lacks a dorsal fin. At birth they are about 1.60 m long and weigh about 80 kg. Males can grow to 5.40 m and attain ~1935 kg in weight and females to 4.94 m and ~1552 kg. Adult narwhals have only two teeth. In most males, the right tooth remains embedded in the skull and the left forms a straight, spiral tusk that can extend outward for over 3 m.

Females are believed to mature at 5 to 8 years and produce their first young at 7 to 13 years. Breeding appears to peak in mid-April, and calves are born in July and August after a gestation period of 14 to 15.3 months. On average, the calving interval is about one calf every three years until perhaps 23 years of age.

Life span may be about 50 years, but most animals probably to not reach the age of 30. Narwhals feed on polar cod, arctic cod, squid and Greenland halibut (turbot). They primarily feed on polar cod or arctic cod in spring at the ice edge and turbot during the winter. 

Where is this population of whales found?

Recent satellite tracking studies suggests that in winter some narwhals tend to concentrate along the edges of the continental shelf near the southern tip of the deep trough that extends down the middle of Baffin Bay and Davis Strait (Figure 1). As ice conditions permit, they move into waters of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago as far north as Lincoln Sea and as far west as Viscount Melville Sound during summer. But the majority of them migrate through Lancaster Sound to spend the summer in Barrow Strait, Peel Sound, Prince Regent Inlet, Admiralty Inlet and the Eclipse Sound. Some of them spend the summer at Melville Bay and Inglefield Bay in West Greenland.

Some narwhals that spend the winter mainly in eastern Hudson Strait, with some animals wintering in open leads and polynyas (areas free of ice year round) of northern Hudson Bay and western Hudson Strait. In spring they move to waters surrounding Southampton Island. The majority of them spend the summer in Repulse Bay, Frozen Strait, western Foxe Channel and Lyon Inlet.

How many whales are there?

An aerial survey conducted in the Canadian High Arctic in August 1996 which covered part of the aggregation areas (Peel Sound and Prince Regent Inlet) and Barrow Strait produced a population estimate of 45,358 narwhals, including diving animals. Narwhals in the Hudson Bay area likely number about 3,500 animals in summer after correcting for submerged individuals.

Threats to the population

Hunting for maktaq and the commercially valuable ivory tusk could be a threat to narwhals but appears to be within sustainable limits at present. Potential effects of changes in ice coverage caused by climate trends are unknown. In Nunavut waters, narwhal life history parameters and levels of sustainable hunting are not well known, and for those narwhals living in Hudson Bay, there is uncertainty about numbers and trends.  Numbers removed by hunting increased during the 1990s. Community-based management is monitoring hunting and is attempting to regulate removals. Reliable information about numbers that are killed and not recovered is difficult to obtain.

Are they hunted?

Baffin Bay narwhals are hunted by communities in northern Nunavut.Hudson Bay narwhals are hunted mainly by residents of Repulse Bay and, sometimes, residents of other communities.

COSEWIC Reason for Designation:

The Baffin Bay population appears to be large (~45,000), although there is uncertainty about numbers, trends, life history parameters, and levels of sustainable hunting. There is similar uncertainty about the much smaller Hudson Bay population (~2,100 mature individuals). Hunting for maktaq and the commercially valuable tusk ivory represents the most consistent threat to narwhals.  Potential effects of changes in ice coverage caused by climate trends are unknown. The Hudson Bay population could decline by 30% in 30 years if hunting is not closely regulated. Similarly, the Baffin Bay population could be affected if hunting in Greenland is not effectively managed. Numbers removed by hunting increased during the 1990s. Community-based management is monitoring hunting and is attempting to regulate removals. Reliable information about numbers that are killed and not recovered is difficult to obtain.

 What will happen if this population is added to the SARA List?

 Adding narwhals as a Species of Special Concern to the SARA List would result in the development of a management plan, a document to promote conservation of a vulnerable population by establishing specific management or conservation measures.

The Management Plan would be developed jointly by co-management partners and other agencies and individuals with an interest in this population. In areas where narwhals are harvested for subsistence, the Plan would assist Hunters and Trappers Organizations to manage the population. Where narwhals are not hunted, it would guide non-consumptive activities such as tourism.

The Management Plan could recommend protective measures for the narwhal population, including:

o       Supporting and implementing recommendations developed by the Canada-Greenland Joint Commission on Conservation and Management of Narwhal and Beluga (JCNB) for the shared Baffin Bay population of narwhals.

o       Assessing risks to the narwhal population that would result from different hunting levels in different locations in different locations.

o       Designating narwhal management zones or habitat protection measures if needed.

o       Developing guidelines to reduce disturbance to narwhals from non-consumptive activities such as tourism and shipping, if needed.

 Hudson Bay-Foxe Basin bowhead whale population

 Status: Threatened

Last Examination by COSEWIC:  May 2005

 Biology

The bowhead whale, Baleana mysticetus, is a large baleen whale, with a barrel-shaped body and a very large head.  Young individuals are entirely brownish black, developing white markings on the chin, fluke tips and tailstock as they mature. At birth they are about 3.5-4.5 m long and weigh about 2,000-3,000 kg. Adult males reach physical maturity at about 12 m and weigh an average of 90,000 kg. Adult females reach maturity at about 13 m and can exceed 18 m at their maximum size.  Adult females are larger than adult males.

Females reach sexual maturity at about 25 years of age. Breeding occurs in late winter or early spring, and calves are born from April to early June after a gestation period of 13 to 14 months. On average, the calving interval is about one calf every three to four years.  Life span can exceed 100 years.

Bowhead whales feed mainly on copepods in areas where the currents are strongest.  Feeding activity may be high around the time of a full moon when tidal variation is greatest.

Where is this population of whales found?

The Hudson Bay-Foxe Basin population is thought to winter mainly in Hudson Strait (Figure 2). During April through May some whales migrate west until they reach northwestern Hudson Bay around Roes Welcome Sound, Repulse Bay and Frozen Strait while others move north into northern Foxe Basin, north of Igloolik. In September and October whales migrate east from Roes Welcome Sound and south from Foxe Basin into Hudson Strait.

How many whales are there?

In 2003, the best partial estimate for this population was about 1000 individuals, corrected for diving animals.

Threats to the population

The greatest threat to this population at this time is an increased vulnerability to killer whale predation as a result of reduced ice coverage.

 Are they hunted?

Based on aerial surveys done in the mid-90s, the sustainable removal rate was estimated to be one whale every two or three years for the Hudson Bay-Foxe Basin population. A non-licensed hunt of a single whale occurred in September 1994 at Igloolik. All subsequent hunts, conducted in August 1996, 2000, 2002 and 2005 near the communities of Repulse Bay, Coral Harbour, Igloolik-Hall Beach and Repulse Bay, respectively, were licensed and resulted in the take of one whale per hunt.

COSEWIC Reason for Designation:

The population was severely reduced by commercial whaling between 1860 and 1915. Recent population estimates are uncertain, but indicate that there could be as few as 300 mature individuals, of which only half might be females. Threats to this small population include illegal hunting [1] and increased vulnerability to killer whale predation as a result of reduced ice coverage.

What will happen if this population is added to the SARA List?

 Designating Hudson Bay-Foxe Basin bowhead whales as “Threatened” and adding them to the SARA List would initiate development of a recovery strategy[2], a document that would establish a recovery goal, identify threats to the whales and define habitat critical to their survival and recovery.  It would outline what should be done to help the population increase in numbers.

The Strategy would support continued recovery of this bowhead whale population. It would recommend a number of ways to achieve that goal including using scientific and Inuit approaches to assess and protect the population and its habitat while still maintaining a carefully-managed Inuit subsistence hunt.

In the future, a Recovery Team would be established, the Strategy updated and specific recovery actions developed in the Action Plan.

SARA contains automatic prohibitions that make it an offence to kill or harm an individual that has been legally listed as Threatened, or damage or destroy its residence. However the Act allows for some exceptions to the automatic prohibitions under certain circumstances, thereby allowing someone to do something (e.g. such as limited hunting) providing it does not impede the recovery of the species.

 DavisStrait-Baffin Baybowhead whale population

 Status: Threatened

Last Examination by COSEWIC:  May 2005

 Biology

The bowhead whale, Baleana mysticetus, is a large baleen whale, with a barrel-shaped body and a very large head.  Young individuals are entirely brownish black, developing white markings on the chin, fluke tips and tailstock as they mature. At birth they are about 3.5-4.5 m long and weigh about 2,000-3,000 kg. Adult males reach physical maturity at about 12 m and weigh an average of 90,000 kg. Adult females reach maturity at about 13 m and can exceed 18 m at their maximum size.  Adult females are larger than adult males.

Females reach sexual maturity at about 25 years of age. Breeding occurs in late winter or early spring, and calves are born from April to early June after a gestation period of 13 to 14 months. On average, the calving interval is about one calf every three to four years.  Life span can exceed 100 years.

Bowhead whale feed mainly on copepods in areas where the currents are strongest.  Feeding activity may be high around the time of a full moon when tidal variation is greatest.

 Where is this population of whales found?

Some animals of this population, including cows with calves, move westward through Lancaster Sound in late June and early July, remaining in the inlets and sounds of the High Arctic until September (Figure 3). Others, mainly adults and large adolescents, remain off the east coast of Baffin Island for the summer and fall. Some bowhead whales winter off Disco Bay, West Greenland while other bowhead whales winter in central Davis Strait and southern Baffin Bay in the unconsolidated pack ice and in polynyas.

How many whales are there?

A partial estimate (corrected for submerged animals) for the Davis Strait-Baffin Bay population is between 1539 and 1944 individuals.

Threats to the population

The greatest threat to this population at this time is an increased vulnerability to killer whale predation as a result of reduced ice coverage due to climate change. Entanglement in gill nets has occurred on two occasions in Greenland waters.

Are they hunted?

The current estimate of the sustainable removal rate is one whale per 13 years for the Davis Strait/Baffin Bay population. A licensed hunt occurred in July 1998 in Cumberland Sound. No hunt is currently planned for this population.

COSEWIC Reason for Designation:

The population numbered at least 11,000 animals when commercial whaling began. Whaling reduced the population to less than 30% of its former abundance. Recent estimates indicate that the population is growing and is larger than previously thought, but is likely to still number fewer than 3,000 individuals of all ages. The population qualifies for endangered, but is not judged to be in imminent danger of extinction. Threats include illegal hunting [3] and increased vulnerability to killer whale predation as a result of reduced ice coverage.

What will happen if this population is added to the SARA List?

 Designating Baffin Bay-Davis Strait bowhead whales as “Threatened” and adding them to the SARA List would initiate development of a recovery strategy[4], a document that would establish a recovery goal, identify threats to the whales and define habitat critical to their survival and recovery.  It would outline what should be done to help the population increase in numbers.

The Strategy would support continued recovery of this bowhead whale population. It would recommend a number of ways to achieve that goal including using scientific and Inuit approaches to assess and protect the population and habitat while still maintaining a carefully-managed Inuit subsistence hunt.

In the future, a Recovery Team would be established, the Strategy updated and specific recovery actions developed in the Action Plan.

SARA contains automatic prohibitions that make it an offence to kill or harm an individual that has been legally listed as Threatened, or damage or destroy its residence. However the Act allows for some exceptions to the automatic prohibitions under certain circumstances (e.g. such as limited hunting) providing it does not impede the recovery of the species and providing it is included within the Recovery Strategy.



[1] One non-licensed hunt took place in Foxe Basin in 1994.

[2] A Conservation Strategy for bowhead whales in the Eastern Canadian Arctic was developed by the Eastern Arctic Bowhead Advisory Committee and published in 2003. The Committee consisted of representatives from the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, World Wildlife Fund Canada and Qikiqtaaluk Wildlife Board. They developed the Strategy in consultation with hunters from several communities. A paper copy of the Bowhead Conservation Strategy for Bowhead Whales in the Eastern Canadian Arctic can be obtained from the DFO offices in Winnipeg or Iqaluit. An electronic copy is available through the following website: http://www.speciesatrisk.gc.ca/recovery/default_e.cfm

[3] One non-licensed hunt took place in Foxe Basin in 1994.

[4] A Conservation Strategy for bowhead whales in the Eastern Canadian Arctic was developed by the Eastern Arctic Bowhead Advisory Committee and published in 2003. The Committee consisted of representatives from the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, World Wildlife Fund Canada and Qikiqtaaluk Wildlife Board. They developed the Strategy in consultation with hunters from several communities. A paper copy of the Bowhead Conservation Strategy for Bowhead Whales in the Eastern Canadian Arctic can be obtained from the DFO offices in Winnipeg or Iqaluit. An electronic copy is available through the following website: http://www.speciesatrisk.gc.ca/recovery/default_e.cfm

Return to Table of Contents

Let us know what you think

By answering the following questions you will help the federal government understand the benefits and impacts of adding the narwhals and two populations of bowhead whales (Hudson Bay-Foxe Basin population and Davis Strait-Baffin Bay population) to the SARA List.

Please fill out the questionnaire that follows and send us your answers either by mail

Central and Arctic Region

SARA Coordinator

Freshwater Institute

Fisheries & Oceans Canada

501 University Avenue

Winnipeg, Manitoba

R3T 2N6

by fax                           (204) 983-5192

 

or by e-mail                 fwisar@dfo-mpo.gc.ca

The deadline for receiving comments is March 31, 2006.

 

For questions or comments concerning the Species at Risk Act or concerning this consultation process, please write to us at the address given above or call us at (204) 984-0599.

 THANK YOU

Your name (optional):

Narwhal population:

What is your interest in the narwhals?

(for example: fishing/hunting as a food source, tourism, guiding, research, etc.)

 

1)  Are you in favour of the Government of Canada adding narwhals to the SARA List?

£ Yes ­­                £     No

Why?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2a) Based on what you have learned about the Species at Risk Act, do you think adding narwhals to the SARA List would affect your activities?

£ Yes ­­                £     No

b)   If “Yes”, do you see these effects as a cost or benefit to you, and in what way?

 

 

 

 

c) If you think adding narwhals to the SARA List will have a negative

     effect on you or your activities, can you suggest ways to reduce the impact?

 

 

3.   Do you think you could contribute to the conservation of narwhals as an individual or organization? Can you give a few examples of activities?

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.    To be effective, the recovery or conservation of a species at risk must be a cooperative process that includes organizations and individuals with knowledge of the population and the threats it faces.  Please tell us which organizations or individuals you feel should be involved in the recovery or conservation of narwhals?

 

 

 

 

 

5.   Please add any other comments or concerns (include additional sheets, if necessary).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PLEASE SEND COMMENTS BY March 31, 2006

Your name (optional):

Bowhead whale population of interest: 

£Hudson Bay - Foxe Basin population ­­      £  Davis Strait - Baffin Bay population

What is your interest in bowhead whales?

(for example: fishing/hunting as a food source, tourism, guiding, research, etc.)

 

1)  Are you in favour of the Government of Canada adding bowhead whales to the SARA List?

£ Yes ­­                £     No

Why?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2a) Based on what you have learned about the Species at Risk Act, do you think adding bowhead whales to the SARA List would affect your activities?

£ Yes ­­                £     No

b)   If “Yes”, do you see these effects as a cost or benefit to you, and in what way?

 

 

 

 

c) If you think adding bowhead whales to the SARA List will have a negative

     effect on you or your activities, can you suggest ways to reduce the impact?

 

 

3.   Do you think you could contribute to the conservation of bowhead whales as an individual or organization? Can you give a few examples of activities?

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.    To be effective, the recovery or conservation of a species at risk must be a cooperative process that includes organizations and individuals with knowledge of the population and the threats it faces.  Please tell us which organizations or individuals you feel should be involved in the recovery or conservation of the bowhead whales?

 

 

 

 

 

5.   Please add any other comments or concerns (include additional sheets, if necessary).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PLEASE SEND COMMENTS BY March 31, 2006

Return to Table of Contents

Appendix

Narwhal

Narwhal

 Figure 1. Distribution of narwhals in Canada. A. Eclipse Sound/Navy Board Inlet, B. Admiralty Inlet, C. Prince Regent Inlet, D. Peel Sound, E. Foxe Channel, F. Melville Bay and G. Inglefield Bredning. Question marks indicate areas where the extent of the narwhal’s distribution is uncertain (modified from COSEWIC status report 2004).

HudsonBay-Foxe Basinpopulation of bowhead whales

Hudson

Figure 2. Generalized seasonal occurrence and migration corridor for the Hudson Bay-Foxe Basin population of bowhead whales (modified from COSEWIC status report 2004).

DavisStrait-Baffin Baypopulation of bowhead whales

Davis

Figure 3. Generalized seasonal occurrence and migration corridor for the Davis Strait-Baffin Bay population of bowhead whales heads (modified from COSEWIC status report 2004).

Return to Table of Contents