Recovery Strategy for the Rocky Mountain Sculpin (Cottus sp.), Eastslope populations, in Canada
- 1. COSEWIC species assessment information
- 2. Species status information
- 3. Description of the species and its needs
- 4. Threats
- 5. Population and distribution objectives
- 6. Broad strategies and general approaches to meet objectives
- 7. Critical habitat
- 8. Measuring progress
- 9. Statement on action plans
- 10. References
- 11. Personal communications
- 12. Glossary
Alberta Environment. 2001. Workshop on remediation guidelines for upstream oil and gas sites in Alberta, June 18-19 and June 28-29, 2001, Red Deer, AB. [Accessed: 27 November 2006].
Alberta Environment. 2004 Alberta’s submission to the International Joint Commission respecting a review of the IJC’s 1921 order on the measurement and apportionment of the St. Mary and Milk rivers. Edmonton, AB. 1 + 33 p.
Alberta Sustainable Resource Development (ASRD). 2004. Status of the St. Mary shorthead sculpin (provisionally called Cottus bairdi punctulatus) in Alberta. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, and Alberta Conservation Association, Wildlife Status Report No. 51, Edmonton, AB. 24 p.
Bailey, R.M. 1952. Life history and ecology of the sculpin Cottus bairdi punctulatus in southwestern Montana. Copeia 1952 (4):243-255.
Cada, C.A. 2004. Interactions between the invasive New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, beatid mayflies, and fish predators M.Sc. Thesis, Montana state University, Bozeman, MT. ix + 126 p.
Chambers, P.A., J.M. Hanson, J.M. Burke, and E.E. Prepas. 1990. The impact of the crayfish Orconectes virilis on aquatic macrophytes. Freshwater Biol. 24:81-91.
Clayton, T.B., and G.R. Ash. 1980. A fisheries overview of the Milk River basin R.L.&L. Environmental Services, Edmonton, AB. x + 94 p.
Clements, S.H. 1973. A review of the history and management of the fishery resource of St. Mary Reservoir. Fish. Soc. 136:1160–1164.
Courtenay, W.R. Jr. 2007. Introduced species: what species do you have and how do you know? Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 136:1160–1164.
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 2005. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the “eastslope” sculpin Cottus sp. in Canada, St. Mary and Milk River populations. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Vi + 30 p.
Cross, F.B., R.L. Mayden, and J.D. Stewart. 1986. Fishes in the western Mississippi drainage, p. 363-412. In C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley (Editors). The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley & Sons, Toronto, Canada.
Dolan, L.S. 2007. Comments on "The St. Mary and Milk rivers: the 1921 order revisited" by R. Halliday and G. Faveri, Can. Water Resour. J., 32(1):75-92. Can. Water Resour. J. 32(4):335-338.
English, W.G. 1977. A limnological survey of the St. Mary Reservoir. Fish and Wildlife Division, Department of Recreation, Parks and Wildlife, Lethbridge, AB. v + 21 p.
Environment Canada. 2007. Species at Risk Act implementation guide. Draft February 1, 2007. 26 MS pp.
Fiumera, A.C., B.A. Porter, G.D. Crossman, and J.C. Avise. 2002. Intensive genetic assessment of the mating system and reproductive success in a semi-closed population of the mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdi. Mol. Ecol. 11:2367-2377.
Freeman, M.C., and D.J. Stouder. 1989. Intraspecific interactions influence size-specific depth distribution in Cottus bairdi. Environ. Biol. Fish. 24(3):231-236.
Fullerton, D.S., R.B. Colton, C.A. Bush, and A.W. Straub. 2004. Map showing spatial and temporal relations of mountain and continental glaciations of the northern plains, primarily in northern Montana and northwestern North Dakota. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Map 2843:4 pp. + map.
Gasser, K.W., D.A. Cannamela, and D.W. Johnson. 1981. Contribution to the life history of the shorthead sculpin, Cottus confusus, in the Big Lost River, Idaho: age, growth and fecundity. Northwest Science 55:174-181.
Gilpin, J.F. 2000. Quenching the prairie thirst. Published by the St. Mary Irrigation Project, Lethbridge, AB. x + 286 p.
Golder Associates Ltd. 2003. Strategic overview of riparian and aquatic condition of the South Saskatchewan River basin. Prepared by Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB for Alberta Environment, Calgary, AB. variously paginated.
Government of Alberta. 2005. Agricultural land resource atlas of Alberta. [Accessed 11 February 2008]
Grove, G. 1985. An investigation of the streamflow-ground water interactions along a portion of the Milk River, Alberta. National Hydrology Research Institute, Inland Waters Directorate, Environment Canada. 38 pp.
Halliday, R., and G. Faveri. 2007a. The St. Mary and Milk rivers: the 1921 order revisited. Can. Water Resour. J. 32(1):75-92.
Halliday, R., and G. Faveri. 2007b. Response to comments by S.B. Rood and L.S. Dolan on "The St. Mary and Milk rivers: the 1921 order revisited". Can. Water Resour. J. 32(4):339-342.
Hanson, J.M., P.A. Chambers, and E.E. Prepas. 1990. Selective foraging by the crayfish Orconectes virilis and its impact on macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biol. 24:69-80.
Hughes, G.W., and A.E. Peden. 1984. Life history and status of the shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus) in Canada and the sympatric relationship to the slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus). Can. J. Zool. 62:306-311.
International St. Mary – Milk Rivers Administrative Measures Task Force (ISMMRAMTF). 2006. Report to the International Joint Commission (PDF 3.07 MB). 125 p [Accessed 2 Nov. 2006]
International Joint Commission Order 1921. In the Matter of the Measurement and Apportionment of the Waters of the St. Mary and Milk Rivers and Their Tributaries in the United States and Canada.
Kirkwood, A.E., T. Shea, L.J. Jackson, and E. McCauley. 2007. Didymosphenia geminata in two Alberta headwater rivers: an emerging invasive species that challenges conventional views on algal bloom development. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 64:1703-1709.
Lassuy, D.R. 1995. Introduced species as a factor in extinction and endangerment of native fish species. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 15:391-396.
Marnell, L.F. 1988 Status of the westslope cutthroat trout in Glacier National Park, Montana, p. 61-70. In R.E. Gresswell (ed.) Status and management of interior stocks of cutthroat trout. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 4.
McAllister, D., J. Craig, N. Davidson, D. Delany, and M. Seddon. 2000. Biodiversity impacts of large dams (http://intranet.iucn.org/webfiles/doc/archive/2001/IUCN850.pdf). Working paper prepared on behalf of IUCN – The World conservation Union for Thematic Review II.1: Dams, ecosystem functions and environmental restoration (PDF 1.2 MB). iv + 61 p. [Accessed 11 July 2007]
McCarthy, J.M., C.L. Hein, J.D. Olden, and M.J. Vander Sanden. 2006. Coupling long-term studies with meta-analysis to investigate impacts of non-native crayfish on zoobenthic communities. Freshwater Biol. 51:224-235.
McCleave, J. D. 1964. Movement and population of the mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi Girard) in a small Montana stream. Copeia 1964 (3):506-513.
McLean, D.G., and G.R. Beckstead. 1980. Long term effects of a river diversion on the regime of the Milk River. Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB. [Contribution No. 1054:21 pp.].
McPhail, J.D. 2007. The freshwater fishes of British Columbia. University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, AB. 524 pp.
Milk River Fish Species at Risk Recovery Team. 2007. Recovery strategy for the western silvery minnow (Hybognathus argyritis) in Canada. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa. viii + 42 pp.
Milk River Watershed Council Canada. 2008. Milk River state of the watershed report (http://www.milkriverwatershedcouncil.ca/). Milk River Watershed Council Canada. Milk River, Alberta. V + 155 pp. + CD.
Mogen, J.T., and L.R. Kaeding. 2002. Fish entrainment investigations at the St. Mary Diversion Dam, St. Mary River, Montana. A Progress Report based on field investigations conducted in 2002. Prepared by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bozeman, MT for U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Billings, MT.
Mogen, J.T., and L.R. Kaeding 2005a. Identification and characterization of migratory and nonmigratory bull trout populations in the St. Mary River drainage, Montana. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 134:841-852.
Mogen, J.T., and L.R. Kaeding. 2005b. Large-scale, seasonal movements of radio tagged, adult bull trout in the St. Mary River drainage, Montana and Alberta. Northwest Science 79:246-253.
National Recovery Working Group. 2004. Recovery handbook (ROMAN). October 2004. Working draft. Recovery of Nationally Endangered Wildlife , Ottawa, ON. iii + 98 p.
Natural Regions Committee. 2006 Natural Regions and Subregions of Alberta (http://www.tpr.alberta.ca/parks/heritageinfocentre/docs/NRSRcomplete%20May_06.pdf) (PDF 5.1 MB). Compiled by D.J. Downing and W.W. Pettapiece. Government of Alberta. Pub. No. T/852:vi + 254 p. [Accessed: 11 July 2007]
Noton, L. 1980. Milk River Basin environmental overview – surface water quality overview and assessment. Prepared for Alberta Environment, Planning Division.
P.&E. Environmental Consultants Ltd. 2002. Fish species of concern survey on the Milk River. October 2002. Prepared for Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Lethbridge and Alberta Conservation Association, Lethbridge. 12 p. + appendices.
Paetz, M.J. 1993. A management plan for the St. Mary shorthead sculpin (Cottus sp.) in Alberta. Prepared for World Wildlife Fund Canada and Alberta Fish and Wildlife Division. 21 p. plus photo plates.
Peden, A.E. 2000. COSEWIC status report on the Columbia mottled sculpin Cottus bairdi hubbsi in Canada, in COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Columbia mottled sculpin Cottus bairdi hubbsi in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. 1-57 pp.
Peden, A.J., and G.W. Hughes. 1984. Status of the shorthead sculpin, Cottus confusus, in the Flathead River, British Columbia. Canadian Field Naturalist 98:127-133.
Peden, A.E., G.W. Hughes, and W.E. Roberts. 1989. Morphologically distinct populations of the shorthead sculpin, Cottus confusus, and mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdi (Pisces, Cottidae), near the western border of Canada and the United States. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:2711-2720.
Pflieger, W.L., and T.B. Grace. 1987. Changes in the fish fauna of the lower Missouri River. 1940-1983, p. 166-177. In W. Matthews and D. Heins (ed.). Community and evolutionary ecology of North American stream fishes. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Quist, M.C., W.A. Hubert and F.J. Rahel. 2004. Relations among habitat characteristics, exotic species, and turbid-water Cyprinids in the Missouri River drainage of Wyoming. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133:727-742.
R.L.&L. Environmental Services Ltd. 1987. An inventory of aquatic habitats and fish resources in the Milk River, Alberta. Prepared for Alberta Environment, Planning Division by R.L.&L. Environmental Services Ltd., Edmonton, AB. vi + 80 p. + appendices.
R.L.&L. Environmental Services Ltd. 2002. Fish species at risk in the Milk and St. Mary Drainages. Prepared for Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. Alberta Species at Risk Report 45:xii + 82 p. + appendices.
Roberts, W. 1988. The sculpins of Alberta. Alberta Naturalist 18:121-153.
Rood, S.B. 2007. Comments on "The St. Mary and Milk rivers: the 1921 order revisited" by R. Halliday and G. Faveri, Can. Water Resour. J., 32(1):75-92. Can. Water Resour. J. 32(4):331-334.
Schindler, D.W. 2001. The cumulative effects of climate warming and other human stresses on Canadian freshwaters in the new millennium. 18-29.
Spitzer, M.O. 1988. Sediment data Milk River basin Water Survey of Canada IWD-WNR(A)-WRB-SS-87-2. [Water Resources Branch Environment Canada, Edmonton]
Stash, S.W. 2001. Distribution, relative abundance, and habitat associations of Milk River fishes related to irrigation diversion dams. M.Sc. Thesis, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT. 67 pp.
Taylor, E.B., and J.L. Gow. 2008 Identification of species and evolutionary lineages in species-at-risk in Canada: DNA sequence variation in eastslope sculpin (Cottus sp.) and mountain suckers (Catostomus platyrhynchus). Unpublished report prepared by Department of Zoology, Biodiversity Research Centre and Native Fishes Research Group, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC for Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, MB. 25 pp.
Taylor, J.N., Courtenay, W.R., and J.A. McCann. 1984. Known impacts of exotic fishes in the continental United States, p. 322-373. In W.R. Courtenay and J.R. Stauffer (ed.) Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
Troffe, P.M. 1999. Freshwater fishes of the Columbia Basin (http://www.livinglandscapes.bc.ca/cbasin/peter_myles/toc.html"), British Columbia. Living Landscapes. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC. 102 pp. [Accessed 1 July 2008]
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. 2004. Regional feasibility report – North Central Montana. Montana Area Office, Billings, Montana. iv + 115 p.
Usio, N., and C.R. Townsend. 2002. Functional significance of crayfish in stream food webs: roles of omnivory, substrate heterogeneity and sex. Oikos 98:512-522.
Usio, N., and C.R. Townsend. 2004. Roles of crayfish: consequences of predation and bioturbation for stream invertebrates. Ecology 85:807-822.
Wells, A.W. 1977. Occurrence of slimy sculpin, Cottus cognatus, in the Missouri drainage system Can. Field-Nat. 82(1):18-23.
Willock, T.A. 1969. The ecology and zoogeography of fishes in the Missouri (Milk River) drainage of Alberta. M.Sc. Thesis. Carleton University. Ottawa, ON. xiv + 210 p.
WSC (Water Survey of Canada). 2008a. (http://www.wsc.ec.gc.ca/applications/H2O/HydromatD-eng.cfm) Archived hydrometric data, Lee Creek at Cardston (05AE002), monthly mean discharge, September 1909 to December 2007. [Accessed 23 July 2008]
WSC (Water Survey of Canada). 2008b. (http://www.wsc.ec.gc.ca/applications/H2O/HydromatD-eng.cfm) Archived hydrometric data, Milk River at Milk River (11AA005), monthly mean discharge, June 1909 to December 2007. [Accessed 23 July 2008]
WSC (Water Survey of Canada). 2008c. (http://www.wsc.ec.gc.ca/applications/H2O/HydromatD-eng.cfm) Archived hydrometric data, St. Mary River at International Boundary (05AE027), monthly mean discharge, September 1902 to December 2006. [Accessed 11 February 2008]
WSC (Water Survey of Canada). 2008d. (http://www.wsc.ec.gc.ca/applications/H2O/HydromatD-eng.cfm) Archived hydrometric data, St. Mary River at Highway No. 501 (05AE043), monthly mean discharge, March 1998 to October 2007. [Accessed 23 July 2008]
Zimmerman, E. G., and M. C. Wooten. 1991. Allozymic variation and natural hybridization in sculpins, Cottus confusus and Cottus cognatus. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 9:341-349
- Date Modified: