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Woodland Caribou (Rangifer Tarandus Caribou)

Technical Summary - Northern Mountain Population

Rangifer tarandus caribou

Forest-Dwelling Woodland Caribou - Northern Mountain Population

Caribou des bois

Distribution: Yukon and western Northwest Territories and northern British Columbia


Extent and Area Information

Extent of occurrence (EO) (km2)308 000 +
Trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)About stable
Extreme fluctuations in EO (> 1 order)?No
Area of occupancy (AO) (km2)308 000
Trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)About stable
Extreme fluctuations in AO (> 1 order)?No
Number of extant locations36
Trend  (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)Stable
Extreme fluctuations? (>1 order of magnitude)?No
Habitat trend: declining, stable, increasing or unknownDeclining


Population Information (LP = local populations that comprise Northern Population)

Generation time (average age of parents)6.7 years
Number of mature individuals (capable of reproduction)37 400 (44 000 x 0.85)
Trend: (loc. pop. decreasing/ stable/ increasing/ unknown)About stable (LP:3/15/4/14)
% decline in 20 years (or shorter period)Data inadequate
Extreme fluctuations in number (>1 order)?No (some local pop, yes)
Population severely fragmented? (<1 migrant / year)?Unknown
List each local population & its numbersAppendix 1a
Trend in no. of populations (decline, stable, etc.)Stable
Extreme fluctuation in no. of local populations?No


Threats (actual or imminent threats to populations or habitats)

Unregulated hunting, predation, fire, low numbers, Access and disturbance, isolation (fragmentation), forestry and other developments, and lack of available habitat (in order of estimated magnitude)


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source unlikely to be successful if indigenous die out)

Does species exist elsewhere (in Canada or outside)?Yes, but differ
Status of the outside populations?Variable
Is immigration known or possible?Possible
Would immigrants be adapted to survive here?Probably
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants here?Yes (not applicable)


Quantitative Analysis

None
 

 

Technical Summary - Southern Mountain Population

Rangifer tarandus caribou

Forest-Dwelling Woodland Caribou - Southern Mountain Population

Caribou des bois

Distribution: Central & southern British Columbia and Mountains and Foothills of Alberta


Extent and Area Information

Extent of occurrence (EO) (km2)136 000 +
Trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)Ca. 40% decline in 150 yr
Extreme fluctuations in EO (> 1 order)?Not extreme but large
Area of occupancy (AO) (km2)136 000
Trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)Decline (from historical)
Extreme fluctuations in AO (> 1 order)?No
Number of extant locations30
Trend  (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)Stable (future decline likely)
Extreme fluctuations? (>1 order of magnitude)?No
Habitat trend: declining, stable, increasing or unknownDeclining


Population Information (LP = local populations that comprise Southern Population)

Generation time (average age of parents)6.7 years
Number of mature individuals (capable of reproduction)6300 (7200 x 0.88)
Trend: (loc. pop. decreasing/ stable/ increasing/ unknown)Decreasing (12/13/0/5)
% decline in 20 years (or shorter period)Inadequate data
Extreme fluctuations in number (>1 order)?Unknown
Population severely fragmented? (<1 migrant / year)?Yes, increasingly so
List each local population & its numbersAppendix 1b
Trend in no. of populations (decline, stable, etc.)About stable, forecast decline in next 20 years
Extreme fluctuation in no. of local populations?No


Threats to populations or habitats

Predation, access and disturbance, forestry and other developments, limited available habitat, isolation (fragmentation), low numbers, and unregulated hunting (in order of estimated magnitude) (magnitude increasing)


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source unlikely to survive if indigenous die out)

Does species exist elsewhere (in Canada or outside)?Yes (may be different ecotype)
Status of the outside populations?Variable
Is immigration known or possible?Possible
Would immigrants be adapted to survive here?Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants here?Yes, but quality may be inadequate


Quantitative Analysis

None
 

 

Technical Summary - Boreal Population

Rangifer tarandus caribou

Forest-Dwelling Woodland Caribou - Boreal Population

Caribou des bois

Distribution: Northwest Territories and northeastern British Columbia to Labrador


Extent and Area Information

Extent of occurrence (EO) (km2)>1 143 613 (+ ON & QC)
Trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)Decline. (40% decline in AB & ON)
Extreme fluctuations in EO (> 1 order)?No
Area of occupancy (AO) (km2)1 143 613 (+ ON & QC)
Trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)Decline from historical; to 60% (AB)
Extreme fluctuations in AO (> 1 order)?No
Number of extant locations excluding Ont. & Que.34-52 (SK 3-21)1
Trend  (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)Decline from historical. Subpop. lost across range
Extreme fluctuations? (>1 order)?No (yes for local populations)
Habitat trend: declining, stable, increasing or unknownDeclining rapidly where development; outlook poor in commercial forest


Population Information (LP = local populations that comprise Boreal Population)

Generation time (average age of parents)6.7 years
Number of mature individuals (capable of reproduction)29 000 (33 000 x 0.88)2
Trend: (loc. pop. decreasing/ stable/ increasing/ unknown)Decreasing (LP: 12/6/1/33)
% decline in 20 years (or shorter period)Unknown. Loc. pop. declines in Labr. of 75-80%. Also decreases in AB, SK
Extreme fluctuations in number (>1 order)?Unknown
Population severely fragmented? (<1 migrant /yr)?Yes, in parts of range
List each local population & its numbersAppendix 1c
Trend in no. of populations (decline, stable, etc.)Increase (more effort)
Extreme fluctuation in no. of local populations?No


Threats to populations or habitats

Forestry operations, increased predation, other developments, fire, unregulated hunting, isolation and small local populations (fragmentation), and climatic warming (threats of some factors likely to increase)


Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source unlikely to survive if indigenous die out)

Does species exist elsewhere (in Canada or outside)?Yes (different genes, ecotype)
Status of the outside populations?Variable
Is immigration known or possible?Possible
Would immigrants be adapted to survive here?Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants here?Yes, but unlikely to be successful


Quantitative Analysis

None
 

 

Technical Summary - Newfoundland Population

Rangifer tarandus caribou

Forest-Dwelling Woodland Caribou - Newfoundland Population

Caribou des bois

Distribution: Main Island and offshore islands of Newfoundland


Extent and Area Information

Extent of occurrence (EO) (km2)66 263 +
Trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)Recent stability
Extreme fluctuations in EO (> 1 order)?Yes (decline then increase)
Area of occupancy (AO) (km2)66 263
Trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)Yes (decline then increase)
Extreme fluctuations in AO (> 1 order)?Yes
Number of extant locations27 with known status
Trend  (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)Yes (decline then increase)
Extreme fluctuations? (>1 order of magnitude)?Yes
Habitat trend: declining, stable, increasing or unknownStable – decline


Population Information

Generation time (average age of parents)6.7 years
Number of mature individuals (capable of reproduction)85 000
Trend: (loc. pop. decreasing/ stable/ increasing/ unknown)Increasing (LP: 0/11/15/0)
% decline in 20 years (or shorter period)Not applicable
Extreme fluctuations in number (>1 order)?Yes
Population severely fragmented? (<1 migrant / year)?Unknown
List each local population & its numbersAppendix 1d
Trend in no. of populations (decline, stable, etc.)22 introduced
Extreme fluctuation in no. of local populations?Yes


Threats to populations or habitats

Access and disturbance (moderate for 82% LP), predation (moderate for 74% LP), forestry (moderate for 56% LP), fire (moderate for 41% LP). Introduced parasite caused a sharp decrease in the Avalon local population.


Rescue effect (immigration from an outside source): (not applicable)

Does species exist elsewhere (in Canada or outside)?Yes (genotypes differ)
Status of the outside populations?Threatened
Is immigration known or possible?No
Would immigrants be adapted to survive here?Yes
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants here?Unlikely (not applicable)


Quantitative Analysis

None
 

 

Technical Summary - Atlantic (Gaspésie) Population

Rangifer tarandus caribou

Forest-Dwelling Woodland Caribou - Atlantic (Gaspésie) Population

Caribou des bois

Distribution: Gaspésie Conservation Park, Gaspé Peninsula, Quebec


Extent and Area Information

Extent of occurrence (EO) (km2)About 1000
Trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)Recent stability
Extreme fluctuations in EO (> 1 order)?Not in last 20 years
Area of occupancy (AO) (km2)1000
Trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)About stable in last 20 yr.
Extreme fluctuations in AO (> 1 order)?Historically yes, recent stability
Number of extant locationsOne (2 subpopulations)
Trend  (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)Recent stability
Extreme fluctuations? (>1 order of magnitude)?Historically yes, recent stability
Habitat trend: declining, stable, increasing or unknownPast decline, recent stability


Population Information

Generation time (average age of parents)6.7 years
Number of mature individuals (capable of reproduction)<150
Trend: (loc. pop. decreasing/ stable/ increasing/ unknown)Recent decline (variable)
% decline in 20 years (or shorter period)About stable
Extreme fluctuations in number (>1 order)?Historically yes, recent stability
Population severely fragmented? (<1 migrant / year)?Completely isolated
List each local population & its numbersGaspésie, <200
Trend in no. of populations (decline, stable, etc.)No change
Extreme fluctuation in no. of local populations?No


Threats to populations or habitats

Low number (inbreeding depression, catastrophe), limited available habitat (no optional range if severe snow or ice), isolation, predation (coyotes and bears), disturbance by hikers, fire, climate change.


Rescue effect (immigration or translocation from an outside source unlikely to survive if indigenous population dies out. Additions may improve genetic diversity)

Does species exist elsewhere (in Canada or outside)?Yes but different genotypes
Status of the outside populations?Variable – too distant for
Is immigration known or possible?Not possible naturally
Would immigrants be adapted to survive here?Unknown
Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants here?Questionable. Very small range & population size


Quantitative Analysis

None
 

 




Footnotes

1 Saskatchewan reported the status of caribou in 3 ecoregions. Subsequently, 18 local populations were mapped (Godwin and Thorpe 1999) and 7 regional groups of caribou (metapopulations?) were mapped (Arsenault pers. comm. 2001). When maps are combined, there are 21 distributions.
2 Calves are assumed to constitute 12% of the population.