Skip booklet index and go to page content

Recovery Strategy for the Western Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis) in Canada – 2013

10. References

Alberta Western Spiderwort Recovery Team. 2004. Maintenance and recovery plan for Western Spiderwort in Alberta 2005-2010. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Species at Risk Recovery Plan No. 9, Edmonton, Alberta. 18 pp.

Bakker, J., and S. Wilson. 2001. Competitive abilities of introduced and native grasses. Plant Ecology 157: 117-125.

Bender, D.J., Gummer, D.L., Robertson, S., Teucher, A., Knaga, P., Baird, E. and E. Jochum. 2005. Conservation management of Ord’s kangaroo rats and sandy habitats of the Middle and Hills of Alberta. Report for Canadian Forces Base Suffield, Medicine Hat, Alberta. 33 pp.

Brockway, D.G., R.G. Gatewood, and R.B. Paris. 2002. Restoring fire as an ecological process in shortgrass prairie ecosystems: initial effects of prescribed burning during the dormant and growing seasons. Journal of Ecological Management 65: 135-152.

Brooks, M.L., D’Antonio, C.M., Richardson, D.M., Grace, J.B., Keeley, J.E., DiTomaso, J.M., Hobbs, R.J., Pellant, M. and D. Pyke. 2004. Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes. Bioscience 54: 677-688.

Christian, J.M., and S.D. Wilson. 1999. Long-term ecosystem impacts of an introduced grass in the Northern Great Plains. Ecology 80: 2397-2047.

COSEWIC. 2002. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Western Spiderwort Tradescantia occidentalis in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.

COSEWIC. 2005. Wildlife Species Assessment: Original criteria and definitions used in the assessment of species from October 1999 to May 2001. [Accessed May 2010].

COSEWIC. 2010. Wildlife Species Assessment: COSEWIC’s Assessment Process and Criteria, Updated August 2010. [Accessed May 2010].

Daubenmire, R. 1968. Ecology of fire in grasslands. Advances in Ecological Research 5:209-266.

David, P. P. 1977. Sand dune occurrences of Canada: a theme and resource inventory study of eolian landforms of Canada. Contract no. 74-230. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, National Parks Branch, Ottawa.

Epp, H.T. and L. Townley-Smith (Eds.). 1980. The Great Sand Hills of Saskatchewan: Policy, Planning and Research Branch, Saskatchewan Environment, Saskatoon, SK. 156 pp.

Faden, R. 2000. 207. Commelinaceae R. Brown – Spiderwort family. In Flora of North America: North of Mexico. Edited by Flora of North America Editorial Committee. Oxford University Press, Oxford, NY. Pp. 170-197. [Accessed Oct. 2009).

Fish and Wildlife Division. 2010. Alberta Species at Risk Programs and Projects 2008-2010. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Species at Risk Report No. 137, Edmonton, AB. 68 pp.

Foster, C. 2008. Rare plant surveys and stewardship activities by the Manitoba Conservation Data Centre, 2007. MS Report 08-01. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre, Winnipeg, MB.

Foster, C. and Reimer, E. 2007. Rare plant surveys by the Manitoba Conservation Data Centre, 2006. MS Report 07-01. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre, Winnipeg, MB.

Frank, D.A., McNaughton, S.J. and B.F. Tracy. 1998. The ecology of the Earth’s grazing ecosystems. Bioscience 48: 513-521.

Geological Survey of Canada. 2001. Sand dune and climate change studies in the Prairie provinces. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa.

Godwin, B. and J. Thorpe. 2004. PFRA Rare Plant Inventory Pilot Project. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and Saskatchewan Research Council, SRC Publication No. 11673-1E04.

Godwin, B. and J. Thorpe. 2005. Plant species at risk survey of four PFRA pastures, 2004. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and Saskatchewan Research Council, SRC Publication No. 11874-1E05.

Godwin, B. and J. Thorpe. 2006. Plant species at risk surveys in Elbow, Dundurn and Rudy-Rosedale PFRA pastures, 2005. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and Saskatchewan Research Council, SRC Publication No. 11997-1E06.

Godwin, B. and J. Thorpe. 2007. Targeted surveys for plant species at risk in Elbow, Dundurn and Rudy-Rosedale AAFC-PFRA pastures, 2006. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and Saskatchewan Research Council, SRC Publication No. 11997-1E07.

Goulet, S. and N. Kenkel. 1997. Habitat survey and management proposal for Manitoba populations of Western Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis). Department of Botany, University of Manitoba. Winnipeg, MB. 89 pp.

Government of Canada. 2009. Species at Risk Act Policies, Overarching Policy Framework (draft). Species at Risk Act Policy and Guidelines Series, Environment Canada, Ottawa. 38 pp.

Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas, Kansas.

Hamel, C. and C. Foster. 2005. Rare species surveys and stewardship activities of the Mantioba Conservation Data Center, 2004. MS Report 05-01. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre, Winnipeg, MB.

Henderson, D.C. 2005. Ecology and Management of Crested Wheatgrass Invasion. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. 137 pp.

Henderson, D.C. 2011. Set-back distance and timing restriction guidelines for prairie plant species at risk. Environment Canada, Prairie and Northern Region, Canadian Wildlife Service. Edmonton AB. [Accessed Nov. 4, 2011].

Henderson, D.C. and M.A. Naeth. 2005. Multi-scale impacts of Crested Wheatgrass invasion in mixed-grass prairie. Biological Invasions 7: 639-650.

Higgins, K.F. 1986. Interpretation and compendium of historical fire accounts in the Northern Great Plains. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Resource Publication 161. 39 pp.

Higgins, K.F., A.D. Kruse and J. L. Piehl. 1989. Effects of fire in the Northern Great Plains. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Cooperative Extension Service, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota. Extension Circular 761. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. (Accessed October 20, 2007).

Hohn, S. 1994. The habitat requirements and management implications for the Western Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis). Critical Wildlife Habitat Program.

Hugenholtz, C.H. and S.A. Wolfe. 2005. Recent stabilization of active sand dunes on the Canadian prairies and relation to recent climate variations. Geomorphology 68:131-147.

Hughes, M. 2001. Summer 2001 Field Inventories of Three Nationally Rare Plants in Manitoba: Small White Lady’s Slipper, Western Spiderwort, Hairy Prairie-clover. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service and Biodiversity Conservation Section, Wildlife Branch, Manitoba Conservation.

Hulett, G.K., R.T. Coupland and R. L. Dix. 1966. The vegetation of dune sand areas within the grassland region of Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Botany 44: 1307-1331.

Jordan, N.R., Larson, D.L. and S.C. Huerd. 2008. Soil modification by invasive plants: effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies. Biological Invasions 10: 177-190.

Kershaw, L., Gould, J., Johnson, D. and J. Lancaster. 2001. Rare Vascular Plants of Alberta. University of Alberta Press and Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB. 484 pp.

Kochy, M. and Wilson, S.D. 2001. Nitrogen deposition and forest expansion in the northern Great Plains. Journal of Ecology. 89: 807-817.

Krause-Danielsen, A. and C. Friesen. 2009. Rare plant surveys and stewardship activities by the Manitoba Conservation Data Centre, 2008. Report No. 2008-04. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre, Winnipeg, MB.

Kronberg, S. L., Muntifering, R.B., Ayers, E.L. and C. B. Marlow. 1993. Cattle avoidance of Leafy Spurge: a case of conditioned aversion. Journal of Range Management 46: 364-366.

Lamont, S. 2004. Personal communication. Botanist, Saskatchewan Conservation Data Centre, Saskatchewan Environment. Regina, Saskatchewan.

Lesica, P. and S. V. Cooper. 1999. Succession and disturbance in sandhills vegetation: constructing models for managing biological diversity. Conservation Biology 13:293-302.

Looman, J. and K.F. Best. 1979. Budd’s Flora of the Canadian Prairie Provinces. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Publication 1662. Ottawa, Ontario.

Lowe, S. 2011. Spatial Habitat Modeling for a Threatened Plant in a Prairie Sand Dune Landscape. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK. 104 pp.

McKercher, R. B., and B. Wolfe. 1986. Understanding Western Canada's Dominion Land Survey System. Division of Extension and Community Relations report, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK. 26 pp.

NatureServe. 2010a. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. [Accessed: May 2011].

NatureServe. 2010b. Habitat-based Plant Element Occurrence Delimitation Guidance, 1 October 2001. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. [Accessed: May 2011].

Neufeld, C. 2008. Survey for Western Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis) Elbow PFRA Community Pasture, July 7-18, 2008. Environment Canada report to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, ROE 4557:925-7E2-11. Saskatoon, SK.

Neufeld, C. 2010. Survey for Western Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis) Elbow PFRA Community Pasture, July 6-16, 2009. Environment Canada report to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, ROE 4557:925-7E2-11. Saskatoon, SK.

Pachkowski, J. 2002. Bio-control of Leafy Spurge in Support of Recovery of Species at Risk Year II: 2002 Field Research Results. Rural Development Institute Brandon University, Brandon, MB.

Pachkowski, J. 2003. Bio-control of Leafy Spurge in Support of Recovery of Species at Risk Year III: 2003 Field Research Results. Rural Development Institute Brandon University, Brandon, MB.

Peters, S. 2003a. Inventory of Western Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis) in Alberta, 2002. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Species At Risk Report No. 61. Edmonton, AB. 27 pp.

Peters, S. 2003b. Inventory of Western Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis) in Alberta, 2003. Addendum to Species at Risk Report No. 61: Inventory of Western Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis) in Alberta, 2002. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Species At Risk Report No. 61. Edmonton, AB. 17 pp.

Peters, S., Benders, D., and L. Matthias. 2009. Adopt-a-plant Alberta: Implementing Recovery Actions for Western Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis), 2007-2008. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division. Alberta Species at Risk Report No. 128. Edmonton, AB. 27 pp.

Potvin, M.A. and A.T. Harrison. 1984. Vegetation and litter changes of a Nebraska sandhills prairie protected from grazing. Journal of Range Management. 37: 55-58.

Reader, R.J., S.D. Wilson, J.W. Belcher, I. Wisheu, P.A. Keddy, D. Tilman, E.C. Morris, J.B. Grace, J.B. McGraw, H. Olff, R. Turkington, E. Klein, Y. Leung, B. Shipley, R. vanHulst, M.E. Johansson, C. Nilsson, J. Gurevitch, K. Grigulis and B.E. Beisner. 1994. Plant competition in relation to neighbor biomass: an intercontinental study with Poa pratensis. Ecology 75: 1753-1760.

Reimer, E. and C. Hamel. 2002. Rare Species Surveys of the Manitoba Conservation Data Centre, 2001 (PDF; 1.03 MB). MS02-02. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre, Winnipeg, MB. 35 pp.

Remarchuk, K.J. 2005. Western Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis) inventory in Alberta, 2005. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Species at Risk Report No. 102. Edmonton, AB. 13 pp.

Remarchuk, K.J. 2006. Demography and Genetic Diversity in Tradescantia occidentalis. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK. 136 pp.

Samson, F.B., Knopf, F.L. and W.R. Ostlie. 2004. Great Plains ecosystems: Past, present, and future. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32:6-15.

Scoggan, H.J. 1957. Flora of Manitoba. National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Scoggan, H.J. 1978. The Flora of Canada. National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Sims, P.L., Berg, W.A. and J.A. Bradford. 1995. Vegetation of sandhills under grazed and ungrazed conditions. In: Proceedings of the Fourteenth North American Prairie Conference: Prairie Biodiversity. Edited by: D.C. Hartnett. Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. Pp 129-135.

Skelton, N.K. 2010. Migration, dispersal, and survival patterns of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in a chronic wasting disease-endemic area of southern Saskatchewan. MSc thesis. University of Saskatchewan. Saskatoon SK.

Smith, B. 2002. Update COSEWIC status report on the Western Spiderwort Tradescantia occidentalis in Canada, in COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Western Spiderwort Tradescantia occidentalis in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. 1-25 pp.

Smith, B. and C. Bradley. 1990. Status report on endangered wildlife in Canada – Western Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis (Britt.) Smyth). Committee on the Status of Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, ON. 52 pp.

Thorpe, J. and B. Godwin. 1992. Regional vegetation management plan for Douglas Provincial Park and Elbow PFRA Pasture. Plant Ecology Section, Saskatchewan Research Council. SRC Publication No. E-2520-1-E-92.

Thorpe, J., Wolfe, S., Campbell, J., Leblanc, J. and R. Molder. 2001. An ecoregion approach for evaluating land use management and climate change adaptation strategies on sand dune areas in the Prairie Provinces. Publication 11368-1E01. Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK. 284 pp.

Trammell, M. A. and J. L. Butler. 1995. Effects of exotic plants on native ungulate use of habitat. Journal of Wildlife Management 59: 808-816.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2011. Plants database - Plants Profile for Tripterocalyx micranthus (Small-flowered Sand-verbena). (Accessed May 2011).

Vance, R. E. and S. A. Wolfe. 1996. Geological indicators of water resources in semi-arid environments: southwestern interior of Canada. In Geoindicators: assessing rapid environmental changes in earth systems (Berger, A. R. and W. J. Iams, Eds.). A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 251-263.

Vinton, M.A., Hannett, D.C., Finck, E.J., and J.M. Briggs. 1993. Interactive effects of fire, bison (Bison bison) grazing and plant community composition in tallgrass prairie. American Midland Naturalist 129: 10-18.

Walker, J.W., Kronberg, S.L., Al-Rowaily, S.L. and N.E. West. 1994. Comparison of sheep and goat preferences for Leafy Spurge. Journal of Range Management 47: 429-434.

Wallis, C.A. 1988. The unsung benefits of wind erosion – stabilizing sand dunes spell trouble for rare plants. Iris Newsletter 3: 1-2.

Wallis, C. and C. Wershler. 1988. Rare wildlife and plant conservation studies in sandhill and sand plain habitats of southern Alberta. Prepared for Alberta Forestry, Lands and Wildlife, Alberta Recreation and Parks, World Wildlife Fund Canada. Edmonton.

White, P. S. 1979. Pattern, process, and natural disturbance in vegetation. Botanical Review 45: 229-299.

Wilson, S.D. 1989. The suppression of native prairie by alien species introduced for revegetation. Landscape and Urban Planning 17: 113-119.

Wilson, S.D. and J.W. Belcher. 1989. Plant and bird communities of native prairie and introduced Eurasian vegetation in Manitoba, Canada. Conservation Biology 3: 39-44.

Wolfe, S. A. 1997. Impact of increased aridity on sand dunes activity in the Canadian Prairies. Journal of Arid Environments 36:421-432.

Wolfe, S.A., D.J. Huntley, and J. Ollerhead. 1995. Recent and late Holocene sand dune activity in southwestern Saskatchewan. In Current research 1995-B. Geological Survey of Canada. Pp. 131-140.

Wolfe, S.A., D.R. Muhs, P.P. David, and J.P. McGeehin. 2000. Chronology and geochemistry of late Holocene eolian deposits in the Brandon Sand Hills, Manitoba, Canada. Quaternary International 67:61-74.

Wolfe, S. A., D. J. Huntley, P.P. David, J. Ollerhead, D. J. Sauchyn, and G. M. MacDonald. 2001. Late 18th century drought-induced sand dune activity, Great Sand Hills, Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 38:105-117.