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Évaluation et Rapport de situation du COSEPAC sur la situation de la loutre de mer au Canada – Mise à jour

Ouvrages cités

Ames, J.A., et G.V. Morejohn. 1980. Evidence of white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, attacks on sea otters, Enhydra lutris. California Fish and Game 66:196‑209.

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Bayha, K., et J. Kormendy. 1990. Sea otter symposium: Proceedings of a symposium to evaluate the response effort on behalf of sea otters after the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill into Prince William Sound held in Anchorage, Alaska on April 17-19, 1990. United States Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 90(12).

Bigg, M.B., et I.B. MacAskie. 1978. Sea otters reestablished in British Columbia. Journal of Mammalogy 59:874-876.

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Breen, P.A., T.A. Carson, J.B. Foster et E.A. Stewart.1982. Changes in subtidal community structure associated with British Columbia sea otter transplants. Marine Ecology Progress Series 7:13-20.

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Costa, D.P., et G.L. Kooyman. 1982. Oxygen consumption, thermoregulation, and the effect of fur oiling and washing on the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:2761-2767.

Davis, R.W., T.M. Williams, J.A. Thomas, R.A. Kastelein et L.H. Cornell. 1988. The effects of oil contamination and cleaning on sea otters (Enhydra lutris). 1. Metabolism, thermoregulation and behavior. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66:2782-2790.

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Estes, J.A. 1977. Population estimates and feeding behavior of sea otters.Pages 526-571 dans The Environment of Amchitka Island, Alaska. Sous la direction de M.C. Merritt et R.G. Fuller. Springfield , Virginia .

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Estes, J.A., D.O. Duggins. Sous presse. Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and variation in a community ecological paradigm. Ecological Monographs.

Estes, J.A., N.S. Smith et J.F. Palmisano. 1978. Sea otter predation and community organization on the Western Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Ecology 59: 822-833.

Estes, J.A., D.O. Duggins et G.B. Rathbun. 1989. The Ecology of Extinctions in Kelp Forest Communities. Conservation Biology 3:252-264.

Garshelis, D.L. 1984. Age estimation of living sea otters. Journal of Wildlife Management 48: 456-678.

Garshelis, D.L., A.M. Johnson et J.A. Garshelis. 1984. Social organization of sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 62: 2648‑2658.

Geraci, J.R., et D.J. St. Aubin. 1980. Offshore petroleum resource development and marine mammals: a review and research recommendations. Marine Fisheries Review 42:1-12.

Geraci, J.R., et T.D. Williams. 1990. Physiologic and Toxic Effects on Sea Otters. Pages 211-221 dans Sea Mammals and Oil: Confronting the Risks. Sous la direction de J.R. Geraci et D.J. St Aubin. Academic Press Inc., San Diego.

Jameson, R.J. 1989. Movements, home range, and territories of male sea otters off central California. Marine Mammal Science 5: 159-172.

Jameson, R.J., K.W. Kenyon, A.M. Johnson et H.M. Wright. 1982. History and status of translocated sea otter populations in North America. North America Wildlife Society Bulletin 10: 100-107.

Jameson, R.J., K.W. Kenyon, S. Jefferies et G.R. VanBlaricom. 1986. Status of translocated sea otter population in its habitat in Washington. Murrelet 67: 84-87.

Johnson, A.M. 1982. Status of Alaska Sea Otter Populations and Developing Conflicts With Fisheries. Pages 293-299 dans Proceedings of the Forty-Seventh North America Wildlife Conference, Alaska. Wildlife Management Institute, Washington DC.

Kenyon, K.W. 1969. The sea otter in the eastern Pacific Ocean. North American Fauna 68: 1-352.

Kvitek, R.G., et J.S. Oliver. 1992. Influence of sea otters on soft-bottom prey communities in southeast Alaska. Marine Ecology Progress Series 82: 103-113.

Kvilek, R.G., J.S. Oliver, A.R. Degange et B.S. Anderson.1992. Changes in Alaskan soft-bottom prey communities along a gradient in sea otter predation. Ecology 73: 413-428.

Loughlin, T.R. 1980. Home range and territoriality of sea otters near Monterey California. Journal of Wildlife Management 44: 576-582.

Lyons , K.J. 1989. Individual variation in diet in the female Californian sea otter, Enhydra lutris. Mémoire de maîtrise, University of Californie, Santa Cruz.

MacAskie, I.B. 1987. Updated status of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 101: 279-283.

MacAskie, I.B. 1984. Sea otter census, Vancouver Island, B.C. Rapport inédit de la West Coast Whale Research Foundation, Lantzville, Colombie-Britannique.


Mason, C., et S. Macdonald. 1990. Conclusions and Priorities for Otter Conservation. Page XXX-XXX dans Otters: An Action Plan for Their Conservation. Sous la direction de P. Foster-Turley, S. Macdonald et C. Mason. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources/Species Survival Commission Otter Specialist Group. Kelvyn Press, Chicago.

Matkin, C.D., et F.H. Hay. 1980. Marine mammal-fishery interactions on the Copper River and in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1978. Marine Mammal Commission, Final Report No. MMC-78/07, Washington, DC.

McCleneghan, K., et J.A. Ames. 1976. A unique method of prey capture by the sea otter, Enhydra lutris Linnaeus. Journal of Mammalogy 57: 410-412.

Monroe, Wm.T. 1985. Status of the sea otter, Enhydra lutris in Canada.Canadian Field-Naturalist 99: 413-416.

Morris, R., D. Ellis, B. Emerson et S. Norton. 1979. Assessment of the B.C. sea otter transplants,1978; including data on stock of invertebrates and macrophytic algae. Rapport à l'Unité des réserves écologiques, ministère de l'Environnement de la Colombie-Britannique, Victoria, Colombie-Britannique.

Morris, R., D.V. Ellis et B.P. Emerson. 1981. The British Columbia transplant of sea otters Enhydra lutris. Biological Conservation 20: 291-295.

Payne, S.F., et R.J. Jameson. 1984. Early behavioral development of the sea otter Enhydra lutris. Journal of Mammalogy 65: 527-531.

Pitcher, K.W. 1989. Studies of the southern Alaska sea otter populations: Distribution, abundance, structure, range expansion, and potential conflicts with shellfisheries. United States Fish and Wildlife SeNice Cooperative Agreement. No. 14‑16‑009‑954.

Ralls, K., et D.B. Siniff. 1990. Sea otters and oil: Ecologic perspective, Pages 199‑209 dans Sea Mammals and Oil: Confronting the risks. Sous la direction de J.R. Geraci et D.J. St. Aubin. Academic Press Inc., San Diego.

Ribic, C.A. 1982a. Autumn movement and home range of sea otters in California. Journal of Wildlife Management 46: 795-801.

Ribic, C.A. 1982b. Autumn activity of sea otters in California. Journal of Mammalogy 63: 702-706.

Riedman, M.L., et J.A. Estes. 1990. The sea otter (Enhydra lutris): Behavior, ecology and natural history, United States Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 90(14).

Samuel, M.D., et T.C. Foin. 1983. Exploiting sea otter populations: A simulation analysis. Ecological Modelling 20: 297-309.

Sherrod, S.K., J.A. Estes et C.M. White. 1975. Depredation of sea otter pups by bald eagles at Amchitka Island, Alaska. Journal of Mammalogy 56: 701‑703.

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Simon-Jackson, T. 1986. Sea otter survey, Cordova, Alaska - 1986 (Orca Inlet to Cape Suckling). Rapport inédit, United States Fish Wildlife Service, Anchorage Alaska.

Waldichuck, M. 1989. The Nestucca oil spill. Editorial. Marine Pollution Bulletin 20: 419-420.

Watson, J.C. 1990. The effects of the Nestucca oil spill on the British Columbia sea otter population and its environment.Rapport inédit présenté au ministère des Pêches et des Océans du Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Contrat du MAS No FP597-9­0478/01-XSA.

Watson, J.C. 1993. The effects of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) foraging on shallow rocky communities off northwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Thèse de doctora. University of Californie, Santa Cruz.

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Wendell, F.E., R.A. Hardy, J.A. Ames et R.T. Burge.1986. Temporal and spatial patterns in sea otter, (Enhydra lutris) range expansion and in the loss of the Pismo clam fisheries. California Fish and Game 72: 197-212.

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