Sauter l'index du livret et aller au contenu de la page

Évaluation et Rapport de situation du COSEPAC sur le Bec-croisé des sapins (percna) au Canada

Remerciements

Les rédacteurs du présent rapport remercient les nombreuses personnes qui les ont aidés par l’entremise d’échanges et d’apports divers, notamment Alex Mosseler, Dave Fifield, Greg Stroud, Chris Cohlmeyer, Ron Summers, Richard Elliot, Keith Lewis, Joe Brazil, Michel Gosselin, Roger Etcheberry, Bradford Gover, Peter Thomas, John Maunder, Kate Bredin et Mark Elderkin. Une bonne partie de l’information fournie dans le présent rapport est tirée d’un manuscrit écrit en collaboration avec Don Steele, Ian Thompson, Rick West et Alex Mosseler, et nous les remercions de leur contribution. Le Service canadien des forêts est à l’origine de l’intérêt porté à la situation du Bec-croisé des sapins de la sous-espèce percna.

Le financement de ce rapport de situation a été assuré par le Service canadien de la faune d’Environnement Canada.


Ouvrages cités

Adkisson, C. S. 1996. Red Crossbill. In A. Poole et F. Gill (dir. de publ.). The Birds of North America, No. 256. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington (D.C.).

American Ornithologists' Union. 1931. Checklist of North American Birds. 4e édition. American Ornithologists' Union, Lancaster (Pennsylvanie).

American Ornithologists' Union. 1957. Checklist of North American Birds. 5e édition. American Ornithologists' Union, Baltimore (Maryland).

American Ornithologists' Union. 1983. Checklist of North American Birds. 6e édition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence (Kansas).

Austin, O. L. (dir. de publ.). 1968. Life Histories of North American Grosbeaks, Buntings, Towhees, Finches, Sparrows and Allies. United States National Museum Bulletin 237.  Washington (D.C.).

Avery, M., et R. Leslie. 1990. Birds and Forestry. Poyser, Londres.

Benkman, C. W. 1987a. Crossbill foraging behavior, bill structure, and patterns of food profitability. Wilson Bulletin 99: 351 - 368.

Benkman, C. W. 1987b. Food profitability and the foraging ecology of crossbills. Ecological Monographs 57: 251 - 267.

Benkman, C. W. 1988. On the advantages of crossed mandibles: an experimental approach. Ibis 130: 288 - 293.

Benkman, C. W. 1989. On the evolution and ecology of island populations of crossbills. Evolution 43: 1324 - 1330.

Benkman, C. W. 1990. Intake rates and the timing of crossbill reproduction. The Auk 17: 376 - 386.

Benkman, C. W. 1992a. A crossbill's twist of fate. Natural History 101: 38 - 42.

Benkman, C. W. 1992b. White-winged Crossbill.  In A. Poole et F. Gill (dir. de publ.). The Birds of North America, No. 27. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington (D.C.).

Benkman, C. W. 1993a. Adaptation to single resources and the evolution of crossbill (Loxia) diversity. Ecological Monographs 63: 305 - 325.

Benkman, C. W. 1993b. Logging, conifers, and the conservation of crossbills. Conservation Biology 7: 473 - 479.

Benkman, C. W. 1993c. The evolution, ecology, and decline of the Red Crossbill of Newfoundland. American Birds 47: 225 - 229.

Benkman, C. W. 1994. Comments on the ecology and status of the Hispaniolan Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera megaplaga), with recommendations for its conservation. Caribbean Journal of Science 30: 250 - 254.

Benkman, C. W., et A. K. Lindholm. 1991. The advantages and evolution of a morphological novelty. Nature 349: 519 - 520.

Benkman, C. W., W. C. Holimon et J. W. Smith. 2001. The influence of a competitor on the geographic mosaic of coevolution between crossbills and Lodgepole Pine. Evolution 55: 282 - 294.

Bent, A. C. 1912. A new subspecies of crossbill from Newfoundland. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 60: 1 - 3.

Bock, C. E., et L. W. Lepthien. 1976. Synchronous eruptions of boreal seed-eating birds. American Naturalist 110: 559 - 571.

Bock, C. E., et T. L. Root. 1981. The Christmas Bird Count and avian ecology. Studies in Avian Biology 6: 17 - 23.

Brewer, D., A. W. Diamond, E. J. Woodsworth, B. T. Collins et E. H. Dunn. 2000. Canadian Atlas of Bird Banding. Volume 1: Doves, Cuckoos, and Hummingbirds through Passerines. Publication spéciale. Service canadien de la faune, Ottawa.

Carroll, A. L. 1996. Evaluation of the predictive capacity of the Eastern Hemlock Looper Decision Support System.  Pp. 9 - 14 in T. L. Shore et D. A. MacLean (dir. de publ.). Proceedings: Decision Support Systems for Forest Pest Management. Forestry Research Development and Applications Report 260.

CITES. 2003. Base de données de la Convention sur le commerce international des espèces de faune et de flore sauvages menacées d’extinction [en ligne]. http://www.cites.org/index.html. [Document consulté le 28/2/2003.]

Damman, A. W. H. 1983. An ecological subdivision of the island of Newfoundland.  Pages 163 - 206 in G. R. South (dir. de publ.). Biogeography and Ecology of the Island of Newfoundland. Dr W. Junk Publishers, La Haye.

DeBenedictis, P. A. 1995. Red Crossbills, one through eight. Birding 27: 494 - 501.

Dickerman, R. W. 1986. A review of the Red Crossbill in New York State - Part 2. Identification of specimens from New York. Kingbird 36: 127 - 134.

Dickerman, R. W. 1987. The "Old Northeastern" subspecies of Red Crossbill. American Birds 41: 189 - 194.

Dunn, E. H., et J. R. Sauer. 1997. Monitoring Canadian bird populations with winter counts. Pp. 49 - 55 in Monitoring Bird Populations: The Canadian Experience. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper Number 95.

English, B. 1998. Impact of squirrel predation on White Pine cone collection efforts in Newfoundland. Newfoundland Forest Service Silviculture Notebook 42.

Erskine, A. J. 1977. Birds in boreal Canada: communities, densities and adaptations. Canadian Wildlife Service Report Series. Report 41.

Erskine, A. J. 1992. Atlas of Breeding Birds of the Maritime Provinces. Nimbus Publishing Ltd. et le Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax.

Flight, G. R., et R. D. Peters. 1992. Twenty Year Forestry Development Plan 1990 - 2009. Newfoundland Forest Service, St. John's.

Global Forest Watch Canada. 2000. Canada's Forests at a Crossroads: An Assessment in the Year 2000. World Resources Institute, Washington (D.C.).

Godfrey, W. E. 1966. Les oiseaux du Canada. Série biologique; no 73. Musée national du Canada, Ottawa.

Godfrey, W.E. 1986. Les oiseaux du Canada. Édition révisée. Musée national des sciences naturelles, Musées nationaux du Canada, Ottawa (Ontario). 650 p.

Goudie, R. I. 1978. Red Squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, in the Salmonier River Valley, Newfoundland. Canadian Field Naturalist 92: 193 - 194.

Griscom, L. 1937. A monographic study of the Red Crossbill. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 41: 77 - 210.

Griscom, L., et D. E. Snyder. 1955. The Birds of Massachusetts. Peabody Museum, Salem (Massachusetts).

Groth, J. G. 1988. Resolution of cryptic species in Appalachian Red Crossbills. Condor 90: 745 - 760.

Groth, J. G. 1993a. Call matching and positive assortative mating in Red Crossbills. The Auk 110: 398 - 401.

Groth, J. G. 1993b. Evolutionary differentiation in morphology, vocalizations, and allozymes among nomadic sibling species in the North American Red Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra) complex. University of CaliforniaPublications in Zoology 127: 1 - 143.

Hahn, T. P. 1995. Integration of photoperiodic and food cues to time changes in reproductive physiology by an opportunistic breeder, the Red Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra (Aves: Carduelinae). Journal of Experimental Zoology 272: 213 - 226.

Hayward, F. R., J. D. Roberts, W. J. Johnston, P. S. Murray, A. R. Penney et M. C. Vardy. 1960. Golden Jubilee Report. Newfoundland Forest Protection Association, St. John's.

Hayward, F. R., J. D. Roberts, W. J. Johnston, S. S. Peters et M. C. Vardy. 1961. Annual Report. Newfoundland Forest Protection Association, St. John's.

Helle, P. 1985. Effects of forest fragmentation on bird densities in northern boreal forests. Ornis Fennica 62: 35 - 41.

Holimon, W. C., C. W. Benkman et M. F. Willson. 1998. The importance of mature conifers to red crossbills in southeast Alaska. ForestEcology and Management 102: 167 - 172.

IUCN. 2002. 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [en ligne]. http://www.redlist.org/. [Document consulté le 28/2/2003.]

James, P. C., T. W. Barry, A. R. Smith et S. J. Barry. 1987. Bill crossover ratios in Canadian crossbills Loxia spp. Ornis Scandinavica 18: 310 - 312.

Kaufman, K. 1999. Birds. Audubon 101: 89 - 91

Knox, A. G. 1992. Species and pseudospecies: the structure of crossbill populations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 47: 325 - 335.

Koenig, W. D., et J. M. H. Knops. 2001. Seed-crop size and eruptions of North America boreal seed-eating birds. Journal of Animal Ecology 70: 609 - 620.

Lack, D. 1944. Correlation between beak and food in the crossbill, Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus. Ibis 86: 552 - 553.

Lamberton, R. D. 1976. Avifaunal Survey of Gros Morne National Park. Parks Canada Contract Report. Report 74-46.

Lewis, K. P. 1997. Summary of Red Pine Surveys from January 18 to April 12, 1997. Biopsychology Program, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's. Rapport inédit.

Lewis, K. P. 1999. Nest Predation in Riparian Buffer Strips in a Balsam Fir Forest in Western Newfoundland. Mémoire de M.Sc., Biospsychology Program, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's.

Létourneau, V. 1996. Bec-croisé rouge, p. 1066 - 1069 dans Gauthier, J.et Y. Aubry (sous la direction de). Les Oiseaux nicheurs du Québec : Atlas des oiseaux nicheurs du Québec méridional. Association québécoise des groupes d’ornithologues, Société québécoise de protection des oiseaux, Service canadien de la faune, Environnement Canada, région du Québec, Montréal, xviii + 1295 p.

Link, W. A., et J. R. Sauer. 1998. Estimating population change from count data: application to the North American Breeding bird Survey. Ecological Applications 8: 258-268.

Mactavish, B., J. E. Maunder et W. A. Montevecchi. 1989. Field checklist of the birds of insular Newfoundland and its continental shelf waters. Osprey 20: 139 - 144.

Mactavish, B., J. E. Maunder et W. A. Montevecchi. 1999. Field checklist of the birds of insular Newfoundland and its continental shelf waters. Osprey 30: 22 -27.

Mactavish, B., J. E. Maunder, W. A. Montevecchi, J. L. Wells et D. Fifield. 2003. Checklist of the birds of insular Newfoundland and its continental shelf waters. Natural History Society of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John’s.

Mannion, J. J. (dir. de publ.). 1977. The Peopling of Newfoundland. Institute for Social and Economic Research Memorial University of Newfoundland Paper Number 8.

Marquiss, M., et R. Rae. 1994. Seasonal trends in abundance, diet and breeding of Common Crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) in an area of mixed species conifer plantation following the 1990 crossbill 'irruption'. Forestry 67: 31 - 47.

Marquiss, M., et R. Rae. 2002. Ecological differentiation in relation to bill size amongst sympatric, genetically undifferentiated crossbills Loxia spp. Ibis 144: 494-508.

Maunder, J. E., et W. A. Montevecchi. 1982. Field checklist of the birds of insular Newfoundland. Osprey 13: 59 - 62.

McCabe, T. T., et E. B. McCabe. 1933. Notes on the anatomy and breeding habits of crossbills. Condor 35: 136 - 147.

McLaren, I. A. 1991. Northeastern regional report. American Birds 45: 244 - 247.

Minty, D. 1976. Red Squirrels in Newfoundland. Osprey 7: 19 - 24.

Montevecchi, W. A., et L. M. Tuck. 1987. Newfoundland Birds: Exploitation, Study, Conservation. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, No. 21. Nuttall Ornithological Club, Cambridge (Massachusetts).

Montevecchi, W. A., et J. Wells. 1987. Vernacular bird names of Newfoundland. Pages 232 - 245 in W. A. Montevecchi et L. M. Tuck. Newfoundland Birds: Exploitation, Study, Conservation. Nuttall Ornithological Club, Cambridge (Massachusetts).

National Audubon Society. 2002. The Christmas Bird Count Historical Results [en ligne]. http://www.audubon.org/bird/cbc. [Document consulté le 31/1/2003.]

Ressources naturelles Canada. 2000. GéoGratis [en ligne]. http://geogratis.gc.ca/. [Document consulté le 30/1/2003.]

Ressources naturelles Canada. 2002. L'état des forêts au Canada : Reflets d’une décennie 2001-2002 [en ligne]. Gouvernement du Canada. http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/cfs-scf/national/what-quoi/sof/sof02/index_f.html. [Document consulté le 24/3/2003.]

NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life. 2002. Version 1.6.NatureServe, Arlington (Virginie). http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. [Document consulté le 28/2/2003.]

Newton, I. 1972. Finches. Collins, Londres.

Nf.birds Newsgroup Archives. 2003. [Document consulté le 31/1/2003.]

Noble, G. K. 1919. Notes on the avifauna of Newfoundland. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 62: 543 - 568.

Ouellet, H. 1969. Les oiseaux de l'île Anticosti, province de Québec, Canada. Musée national des sciences naturelles -  Publication en zoologie, no 1. Musées nationaux du Canada.

Page, G., W. C. Wilton et T. Thomas. 1974. Forestry in Newfoundland. Newfoundland Forest Research Centre, St. John's (Terre-Neuve).

Parchman, T. L., et C. W. Benkman. 2002. Diversifying coevolution between crossbills and Black Spruce on Newfoundland. Evolution 56: 1663 - 1672.

Payne, N. F. 1976. Red Squirrel introduction to Newfoundland. Canadian Field Naturalist 90: 60 - 64.

Payne, R. B. 1987. Populations and type specimens of a nomadic bird: comments on the North American crossbills Loxia pusilla Gloger 1834 and Crucirostra minor Brehm 1845. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan 714: 1 - 37.

Peters, H. S., et T. D. Burleigh. 1951. The Birds of Newfoundland. Newfoundland Department of Natural Resources, St. John’s.

Pimm, S. L. 1990. The decline of the Newfoundland crossbill. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5: 350 - 351.

Pitocchelli, F. J. 1981. Tape Recording of Newfoundland Avian Vocalizations. Centre for Newfoundland Studies, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's.

Pyle, P. 1997. Identification Guide to North American Birds. Volume 1. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas (Californie).

Rajora, O. P., L. DeVerno, A. Mosseler et D. J. Innes. 1998. Genetic diversity and population structure of disjunct Newfoundland and central Ontario populations of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus). Canadian Journal of Botany 76: 500 - 508.

Reeks, H. 1869. Notes on the zoology of Newfoundland, letters 1 - 4, ornithology. Zoologist 4: 1609 - 1614, 1689 - 1695, 1741 - 1759, 1849 - 1858.

Robb, M. S. 2000. Introduction to vocalizations of crossbills in north-western Europe. Dutch Birding 22: 61 - 107.

Roberts, B. A. 1985. Distribution and extent of Pinus resinosa Ait. in Newfoundland. Rhodora 87: 341 - 356.

Roberts, B. A., et A. U. Mallik. 1994. Responses of Pinus resinosa in Newfoundland to wildfire. Journal of Vegetation Science 5: 185 - 196.

Rooke, K. B. 1935. Observations on the birds of Newfoundland during the 1934 expedition of the Public Schools Exploring Society. Ibis 5: 856 - 879.

Ryan, A. G. 2003. Protected Areas in Newfoundland & Labrador [en ligne]. Natural Areas, Department of Forest Resources & Agrifoods, Government of Newfoundland & Labrador. http://www.gov.nf.ca/forestry/protection/areas.asp. [Document consulté le 28/2/2003.]

Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines et J. Fallon. 2001. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966 - 2000 [en ligne]. Version 2001.2. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel (Maryland). http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/. [Document consulté le 28/2/2003.]

Sibley, D. A. 2000. The Sibley Guide to Birds. Alfred A. Knopf Inc., New York.

Smith, J. W., C. W. Benkman et K. Coffey. 1999. The use and misuse of public information by foraging Red Crossbills. Behavioral Ecology 10: 54 - 62.

Smith, P. W. 1997. The history and taxonomic status of the Hispaniolan Crossbill Loxia megaplaga. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 117: 264 - 271.

Snyder, D. E. 1954. A nesting study of Red Crossbills. Wilson Bulletin 66: 32 - 37.

Summers, R. W. 2002. Cone sizes of Scots pines Pinus sylvestris in the Highlands of Scotland implications for pine-eating crossbills Loxia spp. in winter. Forest Ecology and Management 164: 303 - 305.

Summers, R. W., D. C. Jardine, M. Marquiss et R. Rae. 2002. The distribution and habitats of crossbills Loxia spp. in Britain, with special reference to the Scottish Crossbill Loxia scotica. Ibis 144: 393 - 410.

Summers, R. W., et R. Proctor. 1999. Tree and cone selection by crossbills Loxia sp. and red squirrels Sciurus vulgaris at Abernethy forest, Strathspey. Forest Ecology and Management 118: 173 - 182.

Summers, R. W., et S. B. Piertney. 2003. The Scottish Crossbill – what we know and what we don’t. British Birds 96: 100 - 111.

Thompson, I. D., H. A. Hogan et W. A. Montevecchi.1999. Avian communities of mature Balsam Fir forests in Newfoundland: age-dependence and implications for timber harvesting. Condor 101: 311 - 323.

Thompson, I. D., D. J. Larson et W. A. Montevecchi. 2003. Characterization of old "wet boreal" forests, with an example from balsam fir forests of western Newfoundland. Environmental Reviews 11:S23 - S46.

Todd, W. E. C. 1963. Birds of the Labrador Peninsula and Adjacent Areas. Carnegie Museum and the University of Toronto Press, Pittsburgh (Pennsylvanie).

Tordoff, H. B., et W. R. Dawson. 1965. The influence of day length on reproductive timing in the Red Crossbill. Condor 67: 416 - 422.

Tuck, L. M., et M. J. Borotra. 1972. Additions to the Avifauna of St. Pierre and Miquelon. Canadian Field Naturalist 86: 279 - 284.

Tufts, R. W. 1986. The Birds of Nova Scotia. 3e édition. Nimbus Publishing et le Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax (Nouvelle-Écosse).

US Fish & Wildlife Service. 2003. The Endangered Species Program [en ligne]. http://endangered.fws.gov/. [Document consulté le 28/2/2003.]

USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. 2003. North American Breeding Bird Survey Internet data set [en ligne]. http://www.mp2-pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/index.html. [Document consulté le 24/1/2003].

Wells, J., et W. A. Montevecchi. 1984. The birds of Baccalieu Island. Osprey 15(2): 34 – 40.

West, R. J. 1989. Cone depredations by the Red Squirrel in Black Spruce stands in Newfoundland: implications for commercial cone collection. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19: 1207 - 1210.

Whitaker, D. M., W. A. Montevecchi et A. Mosseler. 1996. Red Pine, wildlife and Scleroderris canker in Newfoundland. Osprey 27: 64 - 71.

Wilton, W. C., et C. H. Evans. 1974. Newfoundland Forest Fire History, 1619 - 1960. Forestry Canada Newfoundland and Labrador Information Report. Centre de recherches forestières de Terre-Neuve, Rapport N-X-116.

Wren, L. S. 2001. Continental and Regional Distribution and Abundance Patterns of Boreal Cardueline Finches: Influences of Conifer Seed Availability. Mémoire de M.Sc., Biopsychology Program, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's (Terre-Neuve).