Sauter l'index du livret et aller au contenu de la page

Évaluation et Rapport de situation du COSEPAC sur latruite fardée versant de l'ouest (populations de la Colombie - Britannique et de l'Alberta) au Canada

Sources d'information

Alberta Environment. 2003a. South Saskatchewan River Basin water management plan, phase two: background studies, 28 p., accessible à l’adresse http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/water/regions/ssrb/studies.asp

Alberta Environment. 2003b. South Saskatchewan River Basin water allocation, Regional Services, Southern Region, 43 p., accessible à l’adresse http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/water/regions/ssrb/studies.asp .

Alberta Fisheries Management Information System. 2004. Cutthroat trout distribution, http://www3.gov.ab.ca/srd/fw/guidres/fmis.html.

Alberta Fisheries Management Information System. 2005. Cutthroat trout stocking,  http://www3.gov.ab.ca/srd/fw/guidres/fmis.html.

Alberta Wilderness Association (AWA). 2002. Ghost-Waiparous Area, communiqué de presse, http://albertawilderness.ca.

Allendorf, F.W., et R.F. Leary. 1988. Conservation and distribution of genetic variation in a polytypic species, the cutthroat trout, Conservation Biology, 2:170-184.

Allendorf, F.W., R.F. Leary, P. Spruell et J.K. Wenberg. 2001. The problems with hybrids: setting conservation guidelines, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16:613-622.

Allendorf, F.W., R.F. Leary, N. Hitt, K.L. Knudsen, L. Lundquist et P. Spruell. 2004. Intercrosses and the U.S. Endangered Species Act: Should Hybridized Populations be Included as Westslope Cutthroat Trout?, Conservation Biology, 18(5):1203-1213.

 Allendorf, Fred W., Robb E. Leary, Nathaniel P. Hitt, Kathy L. Knudsen, Matthew C. Boyer et Paul Spruell. 2005. Cutthroat trout hybridization and the U.S. Endangered Species Act: One species, two policies, Conservation Biology, 19(4) :1326-1328.

Amos, W., et J. Harwood. 1998. Factors affecting levels of genetic diversity in natural populations, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 353:177-186.

Andrekson, A. 1949. A study of the cutthroat trout in the Sheep River with special reference to Gorge Creek, Fish and Wildlife Division, gouvernement de l’Alberta.

Baayens, D.M., et M.K. Brewin. 1999. Fisheries resources of the Fish Creek watershed, rédigé par Trout Unlimited, Calgary (Alberta) pour le Fisheries Management Enhancement Program, Alberta Conservation Association, Edmonton (Alberta), 41 p. + annexes.

Baker, J., P. Bentzen et P. Moran. 2002. Molecular markers distinguish coastal cutthroat trout from coastal rainbow trout/ steelhead and their hybrids, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 131:404-417.

BC Conservation Data Center, http://srmwww.gov.bc.ca/cdc/.

BC Fisheries Information Summary System (FISS).Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management de la Colombie-Britannique.  (http://www.bcfisheries.gov.bc.ca/fishinv/fiss - .html )

BC Stats. http://www.bcstats.gov.bc.ca/.

Behnke, R.J. 1992. Native trout of western North America, American Fisheries Society Monograph 6.

Behnke, R.J. 1997. Evolution, systematics, and structure of Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii , p. 3-6 in J.D. Hall, P.A. Bisson et R. Gresswell (éd.), Sea-run cutthroat trout: Biology, management, and future conservation. Oregon Chapter, American Fisheries Society, Corvallis.

Behnke, R.J. 2002. Trout and Salmon of North America, Simon and Schuster, New York.

Behnke, R.J., et M. Zarn. 1976. Biology and management of threatened and endangered western trout, Dept. Agriculture des États-Unis, Forest Services General Tech. Rep. RM-28, p. 45, Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in the Western United States and Canada, Dept.Agriculture des États-Unis, Forest Services General Tech. Rep. PNW-96.

Bergenske, J. Environment suffers as higher level plan changes, communiqué de presse du 4 novembre 2002, East Kootenay Environmental Society (EKES). http://www.ekes.org

Bozek, M.A., et F.J. Rahel. 1991. Assessing habitat requirements of young Colorado River cutthroat trout by use of macrohabitat and microhabitat analyses, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 120:571-581.

Brown, R.S., et W.C. Mackay. 1995a. Fall and winter movements of and habitat use by cutthroat trout in the Ram River, Alberta, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 124:873-885.

Brown, R.S., et W.C. Mackay. 1995b. Spawning ecology of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) in the Ram River, Alberta, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 52:983-992.

 Campton, Donald E., et Lynn K. Kaeding. 2005. Westslope Cutthroat Trout, hybridization and the U.S. Engangered Species Act, Conservation Biology, 19(4):1323-1325.

Carl, G., W. Clemens et C. Lindsey.1967. The freshwater fishes of British Columbia. British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 5 (4e éd.).

Carl, L., et J. Stelfox. 1989. A meristic, morphometric, and electrophoretic analysis of cutthroat trout, Salmo clarkii, from two mountain lakes in Alberta, Canadian Field-Naturalist, 103:80-84.

Conseil canadien pour la conservation des espèces en péril. 2006. Situation générale des espèces en péril au Canada. Ottawa, ministère des Travaux publics et des Services gouvernementaux.

Costello, A.B., T. Down, S. Pollard, C. Pacas et E. Taylor. 2003. The influence of history and contemporary stream hydrology on the evolution of genetic diversity within species: an examination of microsatellite DNA variation in bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus (Pisces: Salmonidae), Evolution, 57:328-344.

Deeds, S.A., L.R. Kaeding, S.C. Lohr et D.A. Young. 1999. Status review for westslope cutthroat trout in the United States, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Régions 1 et 6, Portland (Oregon) et Denver (Colorado).

DeStaso III, J., et F.J. Rahel. 1994. Influence of water temperature on interactions between juvenile Colorado River cutthroat trout and brook trout in a laboratory stream, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 123:289-297.

Docker, M., A. Dale et D. Heath. 2003. Erosion of interspecific reproductive barriers resulting from hatchery supplementation of rainbow trout sympatric with cutthroat trout, Molecular Ecology, 12:3515-3521.

Donald, D. 1987. Assessment of the outcome of eight decades of trout stocking in the mountain national parks, Canada, North Am. Journal of Fisheries Management, 7:545-553.

Downs, C., R. White et B. Sheppard. 1997. Age at sexual maturity, fecundity, sex tation, and longevity of isolated headwater populations of westslope cutthroat trout, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 17:85-92.

Dymond, J. 1931. Description of two new forms of British Columbia trout, Contributions to Canadian Biology and Fisheries, 6:391-395.

Fausch, K.D. 1989. Do gradient and temperature affect distributions of, and interaction between, brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) and other resident salmonids in streams?, Physiology and Ecology Japan Special Volume 1:303-322.

Feldmuth, C., et C. Eriksen. 1991. A hypothesis to explain the distribution of native trout in a drainage of Montana’s Big Hole River, Internationale Vereinigung fur Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie : Verhandlungen, 20:2040-2044.

Ferguson, M.M., R.G. Danzmann et F.W. Allendorf. 1985. Absence of developmental incompatability in hybrids between rainbow trout and two subspecies of cutthroat trout, Biochemical Genetics, 23:1360-1385.

Ferguson, M.M., R.G. Danzmann et F.W. Allendorf. 1988. Developmental success of hybrids between two taxa of salmonid fish with moderate structural gene divergence, Canadian Journal of Zoology, 66:1389-1395.

Fleming, I.A. 1998. Pattern and variability in the breeding system of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), with comparisons to other salmonids, Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 55 (suppl. 1):59-76.

Frankham, R. 1996. Relationship of genetic variation to population size in wildlife, Conservation Biology, 10:1500-1508.

Fuller, P.L., L.G. Nico et J.D. Williams. 1999. Nonindigenous fishes introduced into inland waters of the United States, American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 27, Bethesda (Maryland).

G3 Consulting Ltd. 2000. No net loss of fish habitat: An audit of coastal log handling facilities in British Columbia, 1994 – 1999, rédigé pour la Habitat Assessment and Land Stewardship Unit (HALS), Direction des océans, de l’habitat et de la mise en valeur, Pêches et Océans Canada, Région du Pacifique, Burnaby, 196 p.

Giger, R. 1972. Ecology and management of coastal cutthroat trout in Oregon, Rep. No. 6, 61 p., Oregon State Game Comm., Corvallis.

Golder and Associates Ltd. 1999. Fisheries Investigation of the Kananaskis River from the Lower Kananaskis Lake dam to Pocaterra Creek, présenté à la Fish and Wildlife Division du gouvernement de l’Alberta.

Golder and Associates Ltd. 2003. Report on strategic overview of riparian and aquatic condition of the South Saskatchewan River Basin, présenté à Alberta Environment, 147 p.

Griffith, J. 1988. Review of competition between cutthroat trout and other salmonids, p. 134-140 in R. Gresswell (éd.), Status and management of interior stocks of cutthroat trout, American Fisheries Symposium 4, American Fisheries Society, Bethseda.

Gyllensten, U., R.F. Leary, F.W. Allendorf et A.C. Wilson. 1985. Introgression between two cutthroat trout subspecies with substantial karyotypic, nuclear, and mitochondrial genomic divergence, Genetics, 111:905-915.

Harper, D., et J. Quigley. 2000. No Net Loss of Fish Habitat: An audit of forest road crossings of fish-bearing streams in British Columbia, 1996-1999, Can.Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 2319, p. 43.

Hartman, G., J. Scrivener et M. Miles. 1996. Impacts of logging in Carnation Creek, a high-energy coastal stream in British Columbia, and their implication for restoring fish habitat, Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 53 (suppl. 1):237-251.

Heath, W. 1963. Thermoperiodism in sea-run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarkii clarkii), Science, 142:486-488.

Heidt, K.D. 2002. Elk River Creel Survey Quality Waters Strategy (River Guardian Program), Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection de la Colombie-Britannique, Environmental Stewardship Division, Fish and Wildlife, Science and Allocation, Kootenay Region, Cranbrook (Colombie-Britannique), 32 p.

Hilderbrand, R.H., et J.L. Kershner. 2000a. Movement patterns of stream-resident cutthroat trout in Beaver Creek, Idaho-Utah, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 129:1160-1170.

Hilderbrand, R.H., et J.L. Kershner. 2000b. Conserving inland cutthroat trout in small streams: How much stream is enough?, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 20:513-520.

Hitt, N. 2002. Hybridization between westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss): distribution and limiting factors, thèse de maîtrise, Université du Montana, Missoula, 80 p.

Hitt, N., C. Frissel, C. Muhlfeld et F.W. Allendorf. 2003. Spread of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi, and nonnative rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 60:1440-1451.

Holm, J., V. Palace, K. Wautiler, R. Evans, C. Baron, C. Podemski, P. Siwik et G. Sterling. 2003. An assessment of the development and survival of wild rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) exposed to elevated selenium in an area of active coal mining, p. 257-273 inH. Browman et A. Skiftesvik (éd.), The Big fish Bang, Proceedings of the 26th Annual Larval Fish Conference, Institut de recherche marine, Bergen,NORVÈGE.

Hunter, J. 1973. A discussion of game fish in the state of Washington as related to water requirements, département d’écologie de l’Université Washington State, Olympia, 66 p.

Jakober, M., T. McMahon, R.F. Thurow et C. Clancy. 1998. Role of stream ice on fall and winter movements and habitat use by bull trout and cutthroat trout in Montana headwater streams, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 127:223-235.

Janowicz, M. 2004. Genetic analysis of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and introduced rainbow trout (O. mykiss) in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, département de biologie et de sciences de l’environnement, Concordia University College (Alberta), 57 p.

Johnson, O., M. Ruckelshaus, W. Grant, F. Waknitz, A. Garrett, G. Bryant, K. Neely et J. Hard. 1999. Status review for coastal cutthroat from Washington, Oregon, and California, National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle (Washington), 292 p.

Johnston, J., et S. Mercer. 1976. Sea-run cutthroat in salt-water pens: broodstock development and extended juvenile rearing (with a life history compendium), Fisheries Research Report AFS-57-1, Washington State Game Dept., 92 p.

Joynt, A., et M. Sullivan. 2003. Fish of Alberta, Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton (Alberta).

Keleher, C.J., et F., J. Rahel. 1996. Thermal limits to salmonid distributions in the Rocky Mountain region and potential habitat loss due to global warming: A geographic information system (GIS) approach, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 125:1-13.

Landry, C., L. Papillon et L. Bernatchez.2000. Analysis of gene diversity in cutthroat and rainbow trout from Waterton Lakes and Banff National Parks, présenté à Charlie Pacas, parc national Banff, Banff (Alberta).

Leary, R.F., F.W. Allendorf, S.R. Phelps et K.L. Knudsen. 1984. Introgression between westslope cutthroat and rainbow trout in the Clark Fork River drainage. Montana, Proceedings of the Montana Academy of Sciences, 43:1-18.

Leary, R.F., F.W. Allendorf et K.L. Knudsen. 1987. Genetic divergence among populations of westslope cutthroat trout in the Upper Kootenay River drainage, British Columbia, Populations Genetics Laboratory Report, 87:1-17.

Leary, R.F., W. Gould et G. Sage. 1995. Hybridization and introgression between introduced and native fish, American Fisheries Society Symposium, 4:53-60.

Leary, R.F., W. Gould et G. Sage. 1996. Success of basibranchial teeth in indicating pure populations of rainbow trout and failure to indicate pure populations of westslope cutthroat trout, North Am. J. Fish. Mgmt., 16:210-213.

Liknes, G. 1984. The present status and distribution of the westslope cutthroat trout (Salmo clarkii lewisi) east and west of the Continental Divide in Montana, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena (Montana).

Liknes, G., et P. Graham. 1988. Westslope cutthroat trout in Montana: Life history, status and management, American Fisheries Society Symposium, 4:53-60.

Loudenslager, E., et G. Gall. 1980.Geographic patterns of protein variation and subspeciation in cutthroat trout, Salmo clarkii, Systematic Zoology, 29:27-42.

MacPhee, C. 1966. Influence of differential angling mortality and stream gradient on fish abundance in a trout-sculpin biotype, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 95: 381-387.

Marnell, L.F., et D. Hunsaker. 1970. Hooking mortality of lure-caught cutthroat trout (Salmo clarkii) in relation to water temperature, fatigue and reproductive maturity of released fish, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 99:684-688.

Mayhood, D. 1995. The fishes of the Central Canadian Rockies Ecosystem, Freshwater Research Limited, rapport no. 950408, préparé pour Parcs Canada, parc national Banff, 59 p.

Mayhood, D. 2000. Provisional evaluation of the status of westslope cutthroat trout in Canada, p. 579-585 dans L. Darling (éd.). Proceedings of the Biology and Management of Species and Habitats at Risk. BC Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks de la Colombie-Britannique et University College of the Cariboo, 974 p., Kamloops ( Colombie-Britannique).

Mayhood, D.W., W. Haskins et M.D. Sawyer. 1997. Cumulative effects on fish, p 173-187 dans M.D. Sawyer, D.W. Mayhood, P, Paquet, R. Thomas, C. Wallis et W. Haskins. Southern East Slopes cumulative effects assessment, rapport rédigé par Hayduke and Associates Ltd., Calgary (Alberta).

McAllister, D., F.W. Allendorf et S.R. Phelps.1981. An analysis of the native and resident cutthroat trout (Salmo clarkii) in the Bow, Kootenay-Columbia and Waterton River systems, préparé pour Parcs Canada par Techman Engineering Ltd, Calgary (Alberta).

McIntyre, J., et B. Rieman. 1995. Westslope cutthroat trout, p. 1-15 in M. Young, (éd.). Conservation assessment for inland cutthroat trout, Tech. Report RM-GTR-256. USDA Forest Service.

McKay, S.J., M. Smith et R. H. Devlin. 1997. Polymerase chain reaction-based species identification of salmon and coastal trout in British Columbia, Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 6:131-140.

McPhail, J., et R. Carveth. 1992. A Foundation for Conservation: The Nature and Origin of the Freshwater Fish Fauna of British Columbia, 39 p., UBC Fish Museum, Dept. of Zoology, Vancouver (Colombie-Britannique).

McPhail, J., et C. Lindsey. 1986. Zoogeography of the freshwater fishes of Cascadia, p. 615-637 in C. Hocutt et E. Wiley (éd). The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

McPhail, J.D., et R. Carveth. 1992. Field key to the freshwater fishes of British Columbia, UBC Fish Museum, Dept. of Zoology. Vancouver (Colombie-Britannique).

Merriman, D. 1935. The effect of temperature on the development of the eggs and larvae of the cutthroat trout (Salmo clarkii clarkii Richardson), J. Exp. Biol., 12:297-305.

Ministère des Pêches et des Océans. 1986. Politique de gestion de l’habitat du poisson, no. cat. Fs 23-98/1986F, Ottawa (Ontario).

Ministry of Environment de la Colombie-Britannique, 2006. Indicators of climate change for British Columbia 2002, 48 p.

Monenco Consultants Ltd. 1982. Enhancement and baseline fisheries study of the Sheep River watershed, soumis à la Fish and Wildlife Division du gouvernement de l’Alberta.

Montana Wilderness Association. 2003. Conserving an International Treasure; The Transboundary Flathead, Montana Wilderness Association.

 http://www.wildmontana.org/

 Moyle, P.B., et B. Vondracek. 1985. Persistence and structure of the fish community assemblage in a small California stream, Ecology, 66:1-13.

NatureServe. 2004. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life, version 4.0. NatureServe, Arlington (Virginie). Web : http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. [consulté le 26 septembre 2004].

Nehlsen, W., J.E. Williams et J.A. Lichatowich. 1991. Pacific salmon at the crossroads: stocks at risk from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington, Fisheries, 16:4-21.

Neitzel, M.J., M.J. Scott, S.A. Shankle et D.A. Chatters. 1991. The effect of climate change on stream environments: the salmonid resource of the Columbia River, Northwest Environmental Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 34:1130-1142

Nelson, J. 1965. Effects of fish introductions and hydroelectric development on fishes in the Kananaskis River system, Alberta, Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 22:721-753.

Nelson, J., et M.J. Paetz 1992. The fishes of Alberta. 2e éd. The University of Alberta Press, Edmonton (Alberta).

Northcote, T.G. 1997. Why sea-run? An exploration into the migratory/ residency spectrum of coastal cutthroat trout, p. 20-26 in J.D. Hall, P.A. Bisson et R. Gresswell (éd.). Sea-run cutthroat trout: biology, management, and future conservation. Oregon Chapter, American Fisheries Society, Corvallis.

Ostberg, C.O., et J. Rodriguez. 2002. Novel molecular markers differentiate between Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout and steelhead) and the O. clarkii (cutthroat trout) subspecies, Molecular Ecology Notes, 2:197-202.

Owen, S. 1994. East Kootenay Land Use Plan, Commission on Resource and Environment, Victoria (Colombie-Britannique).

Paul, A.J., et J.R. Post. 2001. Spatial distribution of native and nonnative salmonids in streams of the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 130:417-430.

Paul, A.J. 2003. Quirk Creek population estimates – 2002, préparé pour Alberta Sustainable Resource Development par Applied Aquatic Research Ltd. Calgary (Alberta).

Platts, W.S. 1974. Geomorphic and aquatic conditions influencing salmonids and stream classification, U.S. Forest Service, Billings (Montana).

Pollard, W., G. Hartman, C. Groot et P. Edgell. 1997. Field identification of coastal juvenile salmonids, Harbour Publishing, Madeira Park (Colombie-Britannique).

Porter, M., G. Haas et E. Parkinson.2000. Sensitivity of British Columbia’s freshwater fish to timber harvest: Using species traits as predictors of species risk, BC Fisheries management report no. 114, 44p. BC Fisheries, Vancouver.

Post, J., M. Sullivan, S. Cox, N. Lester, C. Walters, E. Parkinson, A. Paul, L. Jackson et B. Shuster. 2002. Canada’s recreational fisheries: The invisible collapse?, Fisheries, 27:6-17.

Potvin, C., C. Landry, C. Pacas et L. Bernatchez.2003. Structure de la population génétique de la truite fardée (Oncorhynchus clarkii) et de la truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss) dans les parcs nationaux Banff et des Lacs-Waterton, Alberta, rapport final présenté à Parcs Canada, parcs nationaux Banff et des Lacs-Waterton, 72 p., département de biologie, Université Laval, Québec.

Prince, A., et K. Morris. 2002. St. Mary River westslope cutthroat trout radio telemetry study, rapport intermédiaire pour le Columbia-Kootenay Fisheries Renewal Partnership, préparé par Westslope Fisheries, Cranbrook (Colombie-Britannique), 31 p. + an.

Prince, A., et K. Morris. 2003. Elk River westslope cutthroat trout radio telemetry study 2000-2002, rapport préparé pour le Columbia-Kootenay Fisheries Renewal Partnership, Cranbrook (Colombie-Britannique), par Westslope Fisheries, Cranbrook (Colombie-Britannique), 36 p. + 4 an.

Prince, E., et T. McGuire. 1912. Report of the commission to investigate and report upon the conditions and requirements of the fisheries of the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, Services d’imprimerie du gouvernement canadien, Ottawa (Ontario).

Prince, E.E., T.H. McGuire et E. Sisley. 1912. Dominion Alberta and Saskatchewan Fisheries Commission 1910-11, rapport et recommandations avec annexes, Services d’imprimerie du gouvernement canadien, Ottawa (Ontario), 71 p.

Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada.2003. Provincial protected areas strategies across Canada,  http://www.pdac.ca/pdac/advocacy/land-use/protected-areas.html

Radford, D. 1977. An evaluation of Alberta’s Fishery Management Program for east slope streams, Fish and Wildlife Division, Department of Recreation, Parks and Wildlife, Lethbridge (Alberta).

Reeves, G., J.D. Hall et S.V. Gregory. 1997. The impact of land-management activities on coastal cutthroat trout and their freshwater habitats, p. 138-144 in J.D. Hall, P.A. Bisson et R. Gresswell (éd.). Sea-run cutthroat trout: Biology, management, and future conservation, Oregon Chapter, American Fisheries Society, Corvallis.

Reiser, D., et T. Bjornn. 1979. Habitat requirements of anadromous salmonids, p. 1-54 dans W. Meehan (éd.). Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in the Western United States and Canada. US Dept. Agriculture, Forest Services General Tech. Rep. PNW-96.

Rhymer, J., et D. Simberloff. 1996. Extinction by hybridization and introgression, Annual Review of Ecology & Systematics, 27:83-109.

Rieman, B., et J. Clayton. 1997. Wildlife and native fish: issues of forest health and conservation of sensitive species, Fisheries, 22:6-15.

R.L. & L. Environmental Services Ltd. 1998. Inventory of fish and fish habitat in the Bow River between Ghost Dam and Bearspaw Reservoir, présenté à la Fish and Wildlife Division du gouvernement de l’Alberta.

Rosenau, M., et M. Angelo. 2003. Conflicts Between People and Fish For Water: Two British Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Rearing Streams in Need of Flows, rapport du Conseil pour la conservation des ressources halieutiques du Pacifique, 98 p.

Rosenfeld, J. 2001. Freshwater habitat requirements of anadromous cutthroat trout and implications for forestry impacts, Fisheries Management Report no. 113, 77 p. Fisheries Research, Vancouver.

Rubidge, E. 2003. Hybridization and introgression between introduced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and native westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarkii lewisi) in the Upper Kootenay River drainage, BC, thèse de maîtrise, département de zoologie, Université de la Colombie-Britannique, Vancouver (Colombie-Britannique).

Rubidge, E., P. Corbett et E. Taylor. 2001. A molecular analysis of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in southeastern British Columbia, Canada, Journal of Fish Biology, 59:42-54.

Rubidge, Emily, M. et Eric B. Taylor. 2004. Hybrid zone structure and the potential role of selection in hybridizing populations of native westslope cutthroat trout (Onchorhynchus clarki lewisi) and introduced rainbow trout (O. mykiss), Molecular Ecology, 10:1111-1125.

Schill, D.J., J.S. Griffith et R.E. Gresswell. 1986. Hooking mortality of cutthroat trout in a catch-and-release segment of Yellowstone River, Yellowstone National Park, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 6:226-232.

Schindler, D.W., et C. Pacas. 1996. Cumulative effects of human activity on aquatic ecosystems in the Bow Valley of Banff National Park, p. 74 in J. Green, C. Pacas, S. Bayley et L. Cornwell (éd.). Ecological Outlooks Project: A cumulative effects assessment and Futures Outlook of the Banff-Bow Valley, ministère du Patrimoine canadien, Ottawa (Ontario).

Schmetterling, D. 2001. Seasonal movements of fluvial westslope cutthroat trout in the Blackfoot River drainage, Montana, North Am. J. Fish. Mgmt., 21:507-520.

Scholten, A. 1997. Vancouver Island anadromous coastal cutthroat trout: Synoptic survey, rapport préparé pour la Fisheries Research Biodiversity Unit, Fisheries Branch, Ministry of Environment Lands and Parks, p. 8 + annexes, Vancouver (Colombie-Britannique).

Scribner, K.T., K. Page et M. Bartron.2001. Hybridization in freshwater fishes: A review of case studies and cytonuclear methods of biological inference, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 10:293-323.

Shedlock, A., J. Parker, D. Crispin, T. Pietsch et C. Burmer. 1992. Evolution of the salmonid mitochondrial control region, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 1:179-192.

Shepard, B., B. May et W. Urie. 2003. Status of Westslope Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) in the United States: 2002, 100 p., USDA Forest Service, Bozeman (Montana).

Shepard, B., K. Pratt et P. Graham.1984. Life histories of westslope cutthroat trout and bull trout in the upper Flathead River Basin, Montana, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena (Montana).

Sierra Club du Canada. 2003. The Sierra Report, 21:8.

Sisley, E. 1911. Fish of the eastern slopes of the Rockies, Canadian Alpine Journal, 3:113-116.

Slaney, T.L., K.D. Hyatt, T.G. Northcote et R.J. Fielden. 1996. Status of anadromous salmon and trout in British Columbia and Yukon, Fisheries, 21:20-35.

Smith, G.R., et R.F. Stearly. 1989. The classification and scientific names of rainbow and cutthroat trouts, Fisheries, 14:4-11.

Snyder, G., et H. Turner. 1960. Cutthroat trout reproduction in the inlets of Trappers Lake, Colorado Fish. Game Tech. Bull., 7:85.

Spahr, R., L. Armstrong, D. Atwood et M. Rath. 1991. Threatened, endangered, and sensitive species of the Intermountain Region, US Forest Service, Ogden (Utah).

Spence, B., G. Lomnicky, R. Hughes et R. Novitzki. 1996. An ecosystem approach to salmonid conservation, National Marine Fisheries Service Report TR-4501-96-6057, ManTech Environmental Research Services Corp., Portland (Oregon).

Stelfox, J.D. 1987a. An evaluation of the Spray Lakes Reservoir stocking program, September 1986, Fish and Wildlife Division, gouvernement de l’Alberta.

Stelfox, J.D. 1987b. An evaluation of the Upper and Lower Kananaskis Lakes stocking program, June 1986, Fish and Wildlife Division, gouvernement de l’Alberta.

Stelfox, J.D., D.M. Baayens, A.J. Paul et G.E. Shumaker. 2001. Quirk Creek Brook Trout Suppression Project, p. 37-46 dans M.K. Brewin, A.J. Paul et M. Monita (éd.). Bull Trout II. Trout Unlimited Canada, Canmore (Alberta).

Stelfox, J.D., et R.D. Konynenbelt. 1980. An inventory of fish populations and fish habitat in the Elbow River and Fish Creek watershed, Fish and Wildlife Division, gouvernement de l’Alberta.

Stelfox, J.D., et C.G. Ladd. 1982. An inventory of fish populations and fish habitats in streams and beaverponds of the Highwood River watershed, Fish and Wildlife Division, gouvernement de l’Alberta.

Strobeck, C. 1994. Survey of cutthroat trout in Banff National Park, Parcs Canada, Calgary (Alberta).

Taylor, E., M. Stamford et J. Baxter. 2003. Population subdivision in westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhychus clarkii lewisi) at the northern periphery of its range: evolutionary inferences and conservation implications, Molecular Ecology, 12:2609-2622.

Taylor, E.B. 1991. A review of local adaptation in Salmonidae, with particular reference to Pacific and Atlantic salmon, Aquaculture, 98:185-207.

Thompson, G.E. 1976. Survey of Flat, Evans-Thomas, Rocky, Grizzly, No-Name, Walker and King Creeks, Fish and Wildlife Division, gouvernement de l’Alberta.

Thorgaard, G.H. 1983. Chromosomal differences among rainbow trout populations, Copeia, 1983:650-662.

Tripp, D.B., P.T.P. Tsui et P. McCart.1979. Baseline fisheries investigation in the McLean Creek ATV and Sibbald Flat snowmobile areas. Volume II, préparé pour le Alberta Department of Recreation, Parks and Wildlife par Aquatics Environment Limited, Calgary (Alberta).

Trotter, P.C. 1987. Cutthroat: Native trout of the West, Colorado Associated University Press, Boulder.

US Federal Register. 1996. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; Proposed policy and proposed rule on the treatment of intercrosses and intercross progeny (the issue of "Hybridization"). Request for public comment, Federal Register 61:4710-4713.

Varley, J.D., et R. Gresswell. 1988. Status, ecology and management of the Yellowstone cutthroat trout, American Fisheries Society Symposium, 4:13-24.

Vucetich, J.A., et T.A. Waite. 2001. Migration and inbreeding: the importance of recipient population size for genetic management, Conservation Genetics, 2:167-171.

Ward, J. 1974. The fishes and their distribution in the mountain national parks of Canada », 17 p., Service canadien de la faune, Calgary (Alberta).

Weigel, D., J. Peterson et P. Spruell.2002. A model using phenotypic characteristics to detect introgressive hybridization in wild westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 131:389-403.

Wiebe, A.P. 1978. A preliminary survey of seventeen streams in the Highwood River watershed, Fish and Wildlife Division, gouvernement de l’Alberta.

Willock, T. 1969. Distributional list of fishes in the Missouri drainage of Canada, Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 26:1439-1449.

Willson, M.F., et K.C. Halupka. 1995. Anadromous fish as keystone species in vertebrate communities, Conservation Biology, 9:489-497.