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Recovery Strategy for the Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), Boreal Population, in Canada [PROPOSED] - 2011

Appendix F-3a: Critical habitat factsheets for remaining non self-sustaining local populations.

  1. Critical Habitat Identification: Maxhamish (British Columbia)
  2. Critical Habitat Identification: Snake-Sahtahneh (British Columbia)
  3. Critical Habitat Identification: Parker (British Columbia)
  4. Critical Habitat Identification: Prophet (British Columbia)
  5. Critical Habitat Identification: Chinchaga (Alberta/British Columbia)
  6. Critical Habitat Identification: Little Smoky (Alberta)
  7. Critical Habitat Identification: West Side Athabasca River (Alberta) 
  8. Critical Habitat Identification: East Side Athabasca River (Alberta)
  9. Critical Habitat Identification: Cold Lake (Alberta) 
  10. Critical Habitat Identification: Nipisi (Alberta) 
  11. Critical Habitat Identification: Slave Lake (Alberta)

Critical Habitat Identification: Maxhamish (British Columbia)

The identification of critical habitat for boreal caribou is described by three factors for each local population: i) Location of habitat; ii) Amount of habitat; and iii) Type of habitat.

A) Location:Where critical habitat is found.

Figure 1: Keymap of the general location of the local population (in red).

Figure 1 is a map of Canada, showing the distribution of boreal caribou and highlighting the range for this specific local population.

Figure 2: The geographic boundary within which critical habitat is located (in grey).

Figure 2 is a zoomed in view of the local population range highlighted in Figure 1. Critical habitat is located within this geographic boundary.

B) Amount: Quantity of critical habitat.

Table 1: Range Attributes and the Amount of Habitat Required
Range Attributes

Range Size

710,105 ha

Population size

306

Population trend

Unknown

Total Habitat Disturbance

404,760 ha

Range Assessment

Assessment of the likelihood of the current condition of the range to support a self-sustaining local population

Not Self-Sustaining

Determination of Amount of Critical Habitat

A) Range Size

710,105 ha (100%)

B) Total Habitat Disturbance1

404,760 ha (57%)

C) Undisturbed Habitat, Initial Critical Habitat2

305,345 ha (43%)

1 Total Habitat Disturbance reflects loss of functional habitat. It will be more than the associated disturbance footprint (e.g. 100 ha footprint could lead to 400 ha loss of functional habitat).
2 The initial Critical Habitat is the current amount of undisturbed habitat. This may be decreased over time, if demonstrated that local populations are being stabilized.

C) Type: Biophysical attributes.

Table 1: Biophysical attributes of boreal caribou habitat in the Taiga Plains ecozone.
Type of selection Description

Broad scale

Mature forests (jack pine, spruce, tamarack) of 100 years or older, and open coniferous habitat. Large areas of spruce peatland and muskeg with preference for bogs over fens and upland and lowland black spruce forests with abundant lichens and sedge and moss availability.
Flatter areas with smaller trees and willows, hills and higher ground.

Calving

Open coniferous forests, tussock tundra, low shrub, riparian, recent burned areas, south and west aspects and Hills and higher locations.
Muskegs, marshes, staying close to water sources. Caribou observed on small islands of mature black spruce or mixed forests within peatlands, in old burns at the edge of wetlands, in alder thickets with abundant standing water and on lake shores.

Post-calving

Muskegs or areas with access to muskegs, open meadows on higher ground, close to water (lakes and rivers) and mixed bush areas.
Open coniferous forests with abundant lichens, low shrub, riparian, tussock tundra, sparsely vegetative habitat, recent burns and west aspects.
Old burns and neighbouring remnant unburned forests selected in late spring and early summer.

Rutting

Open coniferous and mixedwood forests, low shrub, riparian, tussock tundra, recent burns and west aspect. Still use muskegs that harbor ground lichen and sedges, mixed bush areas, areas of higher ground.
Regenerating burns and sparsely vegetated habitat.

Winter

Open coniferous forests (black spruce and pine) that provide adequate cover with abundant lichens, riparian areas. Caribou observed in muskeg areas in early winter.  
Spruce-lichen forests, fire regenerated, sparsely vegetated habitat, herbaceous and tall shrub habitat and sphagnum moss with scattered spruce.
As snow depth increases, they remain more often in areas of dense pine or thickly wooded black spruce, with hanging lichen and remains access to open, mixed vegetation for ground forage.

Travel

Females show high fidelity to calving sites among years (i.e. within 14.5 km).
Many caribou shift the pattern of use based on seasonal preferences, in large multi-habitat areas.
Rates of movement increase during the rut and are greatest in winter.

Avoidance

Avoid edge habitat.
Avoid closed mixed forests, and water during calving.
Avoid closed deciduous and mixed forest in summer, fall. Closed coniferous forests may be avoided in winter but are used as snow accumulates. Caribou may avoid water in the fall, although there are reports that they are seen along or crossing water bodies.
Avoid forest stand < 10 yrs old during summer.
Avoid roads (including winter roads), cutlines and open bog areas. Do not frequent burned areas in the mid- to late winter even as travel corridors.
Avoid lower and wetter muskeg areas in mid to late winter.

D) Additional Information:

One of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

MODIS 2005 Landcover (250m Pixels) (Generated by CCRS)
Legend reclassified by EC.
With NTDB 1:250,000 Hydrology Layer.

Two of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

*Based on fire data provided by jurisdictions

Disturbance Type and Amount:

Burned Areas = 0.5%
Buffered3 Anthropogenic (no reservoirs) = 57%
Total Habitat Disturbance = 57%4

3 Buffered means a 500m buffer is applied to linear and polygonal disturbances.
4 Total Habitat Disturbance is non-overlapping which means anthropogenic disturbances and burned areas that overlap are not counted twice in the total.

Critical Habitat Identification: Snake-Sahtahneh (British Columbia)

The identification of critical habitat for boreal caribou is described by three factors for each local population: i) Location of habitat; ii) Amount of habitat; and iii) Type of habitat.

A) Location:Where critical habitat is found.

Figure 1: Keymap of the general location of the local population (in red).

Figure 1 is a map of Canada, showing the distribution of boreal caribou and highlighting the range for this specific local population.

Figure 2: The geographic boundary within which critical habitat is located (in grey).

Figure 2 is a zoomed in view of the local population range highlighted in Figure 1. Critical habitat is located within this geographic boundary.

B) Amount: Quantity of critical habitat.

Table 1: Range Attributes and the Amount of Habitat Required
Range Attributes

Range Size

1,198,752 ha

Population size

365

Population trend

Declining

Total Habitat Disturbance

1,042,914 ha

Range Assessment

Assessment of the likelihood of the current condition of the range to support a self-sustaining local population

Not Self-Sustaining

Determination of Amount of Habitat

A) Range Size

1,198,752 ha (100%)

B) Total Habitat Disturbance1

1,042,914 ha (87%)

C) Undisturbed Habitat, Initial Critical Habitat2

155,838 ha (13%)

1 Total Habitat Disturbance reflects loss of functional habitat. It will be more than the associated disturbance footprint (e.g. 100 ha footprint could lead to 400 ha loss of functional habitat).
2 The initial Critical Habitat is the current amount of undisturbed habitat. This may be decreased over time, if demonstrated that local populations are being stabilized.

C) Type: Biophysical attributes.

Table 1: Biophysical attributes of boreal caribou habitat in the Taiga Plains ecozone.
Type of selection Description

Broad scale

Mature forests (jack pine, spruce, tamarack) of 100 years or older, and open coniferous habitat. Large areas of spruce peatland and muskeg with preference for bogs over fens and upland and lowland black spruce forests with abundant lichens and sedge and moss availability.
Flatter areas with smaller trees and willows, hills and higher ground.

Calving

Open coniferous forests, tussock tundra, low shrub, riparian, recent burned areas, south and west aspects and Hills and higher locations.
Muskegs, marshes, staying close to water sources. Caribou observed on small islands of mature black spruce or mixed forests within peatlands, in old burns at the edge of wetlands, in alder thickets with abundant standing water and on lake shores.

Post-calving

Muskegs or areas with access to muskegs, open meadows on higher ground, close to water (lakes and rivers) and mixed bush areas.
Open coniferous forests with abundant lichens, low shrub, riparian, tussock tundra, sparsely vegetative habitat, recent burns and west aspects.
Old burns and neighbouring remnant unburned forests selected in late spring and early summer.

Rutting

Open coniferous and mixedwood forests, low shrub, riparian, tussock tundra, recent burns and west aspect. Still use muskegs that harbor ground lichen and sedges, mixed bush areas, areas of higher ground.
Regenerating burns and sparsely vegetated habitat.

Winter

Open coniferous forests (black spruce and pine) that provide adequate cover with abundant lichens, riparian areas. Caribou observed in muskeg areas in early winter.  
Spruce-lichen forests, fire regenerated, sparsely vegetated habitat, herbaceous and tall shrub habitat and sphagnum moss with scattered spruce.
As snow depth increases, they remain more often in areas of dense pine or thickly wooded black spruce, with hanging lichen and remains access to open, mixed vegetation for ground forage.

Travel

Females show high fidelity to calving sites among years (i.e. within 14.5 km).
Many caribou shift the pattern of use based on seasonal preferences, in large multi-habitat areas.
Rates of movement increase during the rut and are greatest in winter.

Avoidance

Avoid edge habitat.
Avoid closed mixed forests, and water during calving.
Avoid closed deciduous and mixed forest in summer, fall. Closed coniferous forests may be avoided in winter but are used as snow accumulates. Caribou may avoid water in the fall, although there are reports that they are seen along or crossing water bodies.
Avoid forest stand < 10 yrs old during summer.
Avoid roads (including winter roads), cutlines and open bog areas. Do not frequent burned areas in the mid- to late winter even as travel corridors.
Avoid lower and wetter muskeg areas in mid to late winter.

D) Additional Information:

One of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

MODIS 2005 Landcover (250m Pixels) (Generated by CCRS)
Legend reclassified by EC.
With NTDB 1:250,000 Hydrology Layer

Two of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

*Based on fire data provided by jurisdictions

Disturbance Type and Amount:

Burned Areas = 6%
Buffered3 Anthropogenic (no reservoirs) = 86%
Total Habitat Disturbance = 87%4

3 Buffered means a 500m buffer is applied to linear and polygonal disturbances.
4 Total Habitat Disturbance is non-overlapping which means anthropogenic disturbances and burned areas that overlap are not counted twice in the total.

Critical Habitat Identification: Parker (British Columbia)

The identification of critical habitat for boreal caribou is described by three factors for each local population: i) Location of habitat; ii) Amount of habitat; and iii) Type of habitat.

A) Location:Where critical habitat is found.

Figure 1: Keymap of the general location of the local population (in red).

Figure 1 is a map of Canada, showing the distribution of boreal caribou and highlighting the range for this specific local population.

Figure 2: The geographic boundary within which critical habitat is located (in grey).

Figure 2 is a zoomed in view of the local population range highlighted in Figure 1. Critical habitat is located within this geographic boundary.

B) Amount: Quantity of critical habitat.

Table 1: Range Attributes and the Amount of Habitat Required
Range Attributes

Range Size

22,452 ha

Population size

25

Population trend

Unknown

Total Habitat Disturbance

7,634 ha

Range Assessment

Assessment of the likelihood of the current condition of the range to support a self-sustaining local population

Not Self-Sustaining

Determination of Amount of Habitat

A) Range Size

22,452 ha (100%)

B) Total Habitat Disturbance1

7,634 ha (34%)

C)  Critical Habitat2

14,594 ha (65%)

1 Total Habitat Disturbance reflects loss of functional habitat. It will be more than the associated disturbance footprint (e.g. 100 ha footprint could lead to 400 ha loss of functional habitat).
2 The available undisturbed habitat is more than 65% of the range.

C) Type: Biophysical attributes.

Table 1: Biophysical attributes of boreal caribou habitat in the Taiga Plains ecozone.
Type of selection Description

Broad scale

Mature forests (jack pine, spruce, tamarack) of 100 years or older, and open coniferous habitat. Large areas of spruce peatland and muskeg with preference for bogs over fens and upland and lowland black spruce forests with abundant lichens and sedge and moss availability.
Flatter areas with smaller trees and willows, hills and higher ground.

Calving

Open coniferous forests, tussock tundra, low shrub, riparian, recent burned areas, south and west aspects and Hills and higher locations.
Muskegs, marshes, staying close to water sources. Caribou observed on small islands of mature black spruce or mixed forests within peatlands, in old burns at the edge of wetlands, in alder thickets with abundant standing water and on lake shores.

Post-calving

Muskegs or areas with access to muskegs, open meadows on higher ground, close to water (lakes and rivers) and mixed bush areas.
Open coniferous forests with abundant lichens, low shrub, riparian, tussock tundra, sparsely vegetative habitat, recent burns and west aspects.
Old burns and neighbouring remnant unburned forests selected in late spring and early summer.

Rutting

Open coniferous and mixedwood forests, low shrub, riparian, tussock tundra, recent burns and west aspect. Still use muskegs that harbor ground lichen and sedges, mixed bush areas, areas of higher ground.
Regenerating burns and sparsely vegetated habitat.

Winter

Open coniferous forests (black spruce and pine) that provide adequate cover with abundant lichens, riparian areas. Caribou observed in muskeg areas in early winter.  
Spruce-lichen forests, fire regenerated, sparsely vegetated habitat, herbaceous and tall shrub habitat and sphagnum moss with scattered spruce.
As snow depth increases, they remain more often in areas of dense pine or thickly wooded black spruce, with hanging lichen and remains access to open, mixed vegetation for ground forage.

Travel

Females show high fidelity to calving sites among years (i.e. within 14.5 km).
Many caribou shift the pattern of use based on seasonal preferences, in large multi-habitat areas.
Rates of movement increase during the rut and are greatest in winter.

Avoidance

Avoid edge habitat.
Avoid closed mixed forests, and water during calving.
Avoid closed deciduous and mixed forest in summer, fall. Closed coniferous forests may be avoided in winter but are used as snow accumulates. Caribou may avoid water in the fall, although there are reports that they are seen along or crossing water bodies.
Avoid forest stand < 10 yrs old during summer.
Avoid roads (including winter roads), cutlines and open bog areas. Do not frequent burned areas in the mid- to late winter even as travel corridors.
Avoid lower and wetter muskeg areas in mid to late winter.

D) Additional Information:

One of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

MODIS 2005 Landcover (250m Pixels) (Generated by CCRS)
Legend reclassified by EC.
With NTDB 1:250,000 Hydrology Layer

Two of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

*Based on fire data provided by jurisdictions

Disturbance Type and Amount:

Burned Areas = 0.4%
Buffered3 Anthropogenic (no reservoirs) = 34%
Total Habitat Disturbance = 34%4

3 Buffered means a 500m buffer is applied to linear and polygonal disturbances.
4 Total Habitat Disturbance is non-overlapping which means anthropogenic disturbances and burned areas that overlap are not counted twice in the total.

Critical Habitat Identification: Prophet (British Columbia)

The identification of critical habitat for boreal caribou is described by three factors for each local population: i) Location of habitat; ii) Amount of habitat; and iii) Type of habitat.

A) Location:Where critical habitat is found.

Figure 1: Keymap of the general location of the local population (in red).

Figure 1 is a map of Canada, showing the distribution of boreal caribou and highlighting the range for this specific local population.

Figure 2: The geographic boundary within which critical habitat is located (in grey).

Figure 2 is a zoomed in view of the local population range highlighted in Figure 1. Critical habitat is located within this geographic boundary.

B) Amount: Quantity of critical habitat.

Table 1: Range Attributes and the Amount of Habitat Required
Range Attributes

Range Size

91,581 ha

Population size

54

Population trend

Unknown

Total Habitat Disturbance

72,349 ha

Range Assessment

Assessment of the likelihood of the current condition of the range to support a self-sustaining local population

Not Self-Sustaining

Determination of Amount of Habitat

A) Range Size

91,581 ha (100%)

B) Total Habitat Disturbance1

72,349 ha (79%)

C) Undisturbed Habitat, Initial Critical Habitat2

19,232 ha (21%)

1 Total Habitat Disturbance reflects loss of functional habitat. It will be more than the associated disturbance footprint (e.g. 100 ha footprint could lead to 400 ha loss of functional habitat).
2 The initial Critical Habitat is the current amount of undisturbed habitat. This may be decreased over time, if demonstrated that local populations are being stabilized.

C) Type: Biophysical attributes.

Table 1: Biophysical attributes of boreal caribou habitat in the Taiga Plains ecozone.
Type of selection Description

Broad scale

Mature forests (jack pine, spruce, tamarack) of 100 years or older, and open coniferous habitat. Large areas of spruce peatland and muskeg with preference for bogs over fens and upland and lowland black spruce forests with abundant lichens and sedge and moss availability.
Flatter areas with smaller trees and willows, hills and higher ground.

Calving

Open coniferous forests, tussock tundra, low shrub, riparian, recent burned areas, south and west aspects and Hills and higher locations.
Muskegs, marshes, staying close to water sources. Caribou observed on small islands of mature black spruce or mixed forests within peatlands, in old burns at the edge of wetlands, in alder thickets with abundant standing water and on lake shores.

Post-calving

Muskegs or areas with access to muskegs, open meadows on higher ground, close to water (lakes and rivers) and mixed bush areas.
Open coniferous forests with abundant lichens, low shrub, riparian, tussock tundra, sparsely vegetative habitat, recent burns and west aspects.
Old burns and neighbouring remnant unburned forests selected in late spring and early summer.

Rutting

Open coniferous and mixedwood forests, low shrub, riparian, tussock tundra, recent burns and west aspect. Still use muskegs that harbor ground lichen and sedges, mixed bush areas, areas of higher ground.
Regenerating burns and sparsely vegetated habitat.

Winter

Open coniferous forests (black spruce and pine) that provide adequate cover with abundant lichens, riparian areas. Caribou observed in muskeg areas in early winter.  
Spruce-lichen forests, fire regenerated, sparsely vegetated habitat, herbaceous and tall shrub habitat and sphagnum moss with scattered spruce.
As snow depth increases, they remain more often in areas of dense pine or thickly wooded black spruce, with hanging lichen and remains access to open, mixed vegetation for ground forage.

Travel

Females show high fidelity to calving sites among years (i.e. within 14.5 km).
Many caribou shift the pattern of use based on seasonal preferences, in large multi-habitat areas.
Rates of movement increase during the rut and are greatest in winter.

Avoidance

Avoid edge habitat.
Avoid closed mixed forests, and water during calving.
Avoid closed deciduous and mixed forest in summer, fall. Closed coniferous forests may be avoided in winter but are used as snow accumulates. Caribou may avoid water in the fall, although there are reports that they are seen along or crossing water bodies.
Avoid forest stand < 10 yrs old during summer.
Avoid roads (including winter roads), cutlines and open bog areas. Do not frequent burned areas in the mid- to late winter even as travel corridors.
Avoid lower and wetter muskeg areas in mid to late winter.

D) Additional Information:

One of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

MODIS 2005 Landcover (250m Pixels) (Generated by CCRS)
Legend reclassified by EC.
With NTDB 1:250,000 Hydrology Layer.

Two of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

*Based on fire data provided by jurisdictions

Disturbance Type and Amount:

Burned Areas = 0.4%
Buffered3 Anthropogenic (no reservoirs) = 79%
Total Habitat Disturbance = 79%4

3 Buffered means a 500m buffer is applied to linear and polygonal disturbances.
4 Total Habitat Disturbance is non-overlapping which means anthropogenic disturbances and burned areas that overlap are not counted twice in the total.

Critical Habitat Identification: Chinchaga (Alberta/British Columbia)

The identification of critical habitat for boreal caribou is described by three factors for each local population: i) Location of habitat; ii) Amount of habitat; and iii) Type of habitat.

A) Location:Where critical habitat is found.

Figure 1: Keymap of the general location of the local population (in red).

Figure 1 is a map of Canada, showing the distribution of boreal caribou and highlighting the range for this specific local population.

Figure 2: The geographic boundary within which critical habitat is located (in grey).

Figure 2 is a zoomed in view of the local population range highlighted in Figure 1. Critical habitat is located within this geographic boundary.

B) Amount: Quantity of critical habitat.

Table 1: Range Attributes and the Amount of Habitat Required
Range Attributes

Range Size

3,162,612 ha

Population size

250

Population trend

Declining

Total Habitat Disturbance

2,403,585 ha

Range Assessment

Assessment of the current condition of the range to support a self-sustaining local population

Not Self-Sustaining

Determination of Amount of Habitat

A) Range Size

3,162,612 ha (100%)

B) Total Habitat Disturbance1

2,403,585 ha (76%)

C) Undisturbed Habitat, Initial Critical Habitat2

759,027 (24%)

1 Total Habitat Disturbance reflects loss of functional habitat. It will be more than the associated disturbance footprint (e.g. 100 ha footprint could lead to 400 ha loss of functional habitat).
2 The initial Critical Habitat is the current amount of undisturbed habitat. This may be decreased over time, if demonstrated that local populations are being stabilized.

C) Type: Biophysical attributes.

Table 1: Biophysical attributes of boreal caribou habitat in the Taiga Plains ecozone.
Type of selection Description

Broad scale

Mature forests (jack pine, spruce, tamarack) of 100 years or older, and open coniferous habitat. Large areas of spruce peatland and muskeg with preference for bogs over fens and upland and lowland black spruce forests with abundant lichens and sedge and moss availability.
Flatter areas with smaller trees and willows, hills and higher ground.

Calving

Open coniferous forests, tussock tundra, low shrub, riparian, recent burned areas, south and west aspects and Hills and higher locations.
Muskegs, marshes, staying close to water sources. Caribou observed on small islands of mature black spruce or mixed forests within peatlands, in old burns at the edge of wetlands, in alder thickets with abundant standing water and on lake shores.

Post-calving

Muskegs or areas with access to muskegs, open meadows on higher ground, close to water (lakes and rivers) and mixed bush areas.
Open coniferous forests with abundant lichens, low shrub, riparian, tussock tundra, sparsely vegetative habitat, recent burns and west aspects.
Old burns and neighbouring remnant unburned forests selected in late spring and early summer.

Rutting

Open coniferous and mixedwood forests, low shrub, riparian, tussock tundra, recent burns and west aspect. Still use muskegs that harbor ground lichen and sedges, mixed bush areas, areas of higher ground.
Regenerating burns and sparsely vegetated habitat.

Winter

Open coniferous forests (black spruce and pine) that provide adequate cover with abundant lichens, riparian areas. Caribou observed in muskeg areas in early winter.  
Spruce-lichen forests, fire regenerated, sparsely vegetated habitat, herbaceous and tall shrub habitat and sphagnum moss with scattered spruce.
As snow depth increases, they remain more often in areas of dense pine or thickly wooded black spruce, with hanging lichen and remains access to open, mixed vegetation for ground forage.

Travel

Females show high fidelity to calving sites among years (i.e. within 14.5 km).
Many caribou shift the pattern of use based on seasonal preferences, in large multi-habitat areas.
Rates of movement increase during the rut and are greatest in winter.

Avoidance

Avoid edge habitat.
Avoid closed mixed forests, and water during calving.
Avoid closed deciduous and mixed forest in summer, fall. Closed coniferous forests may be avoided in winter but are used as snow accumulates. Caribou may avoid water in the fall, although there are reports that they are seen along or crossing water bodies.
Avoid forest stand < 10 yrs old during summer.
Avoid roads (including winter roads), cutlines and open bog areas. Do not frequent burned areas in the mid- to late winter even as travel corridors.
Avoid lower and wetter muskeg areas in mid to late winter.

Table 2: Biophysical attributes of boreal caribou habitat in the Boreal Plains ecozone.
Type of selection Description

Broad scale

Late seral-stage (> 50 yrs old) conifer forest (jack pine, black spruce, tamarack), treed peatlands, muskegs or bogs, use dry islands in the middle of muskegs, with abundant lichens. Hilly or higher ground and small lakes.
Restricted primarily to peatland complexes.
Elevations of 1135 m.
Selected old (>40 yrs) burns.

Calving

Bogs and mature forests selected for calving as well as islands and small lakes.
Peatlands and stands dominated by black spruce and lowland black spruce stands within muskeg are used for calving.

Post-calving

Forest stands older than 50 yrs.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands and muskeg are also selected during summer. Use lichen and low muskeg vegetation.
In some areas, sites with abundant arboreal lichen are selected during summer.

Rutting

Mature forests.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands and muskeg during summer.

Winter

Treed peatlands, treed bog and treed fen and open fen complexes with > 50% peatland coverage with high abundance of lichens.
Use of small lakes, rock outcrops on lakes for lichen access.
Mature forest > 50 yrs old.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands.

Avoidance

Avoid upland and fen habitats, aspen dominated stands, immature stands and large rivers all year round.
Avoid matrix-type habitat, including areas with abundant shrubs, disturbed/fragemented habitats, hardwood/deciduous dominated forest stands, and edge habitat.
Avoid recent burns, main roads, seismic lines, well sites and areas with a high density of cut blocks.
Avoidance of water.

D) Additional Information:

One of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

MODIS 2005 Landcover (250m Pixels) (Generated by CCRS)
Legend reclassified by EC.
With NTDB 1:250,000 Hydrology Layer.

Two of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

*Based on fire data provided by jurisdictions

Disturbance Type and Amount:

Burned Areas = 8%
Buffered3 Anthropogenic (no reservoirs) = 74%
Total Habitat Disturbance = 76%4

3 Buffered means a 500m buffer is applied to linear and polygonal disturbances.
4 Total Habitat Disturbance is non-overlapping which means anthropogenic disturbances and burned areas that overlap are not counted twice in the total.

Critical Habitat Identification: Little Smoky (Alberta)

The identification of critical habitat for boreal caribou is described by three factors for each local population: i) Location of habitat; ii) Amount of habitat; and iii) Type of habitat.

A) Location:Where critical habitat is found.

Figure 1: Keymap of the general location of the local population (in red).

Figure 1 is a map of Canada, showing the distribution of boreal caribou and highlighting the range for this specific local population.

Figure 2: The geographic boundary within which critical habitat is located (in grey).

Figure 2 is a zoomed in view of the local population range highlighted in Figure 1. Critical habitat is located within this geographic boundary.

B) Amount: Quantity of critical habitat.

Table 1: Range Attributes and the Amount of Habitat Required
Range Attributes

Range Size

308,606 ha

Population size

78

Population trend

Declining

Total Habitat Disturbance

293,176 ha

Range Assessment

Assessment of the likelihood of the current condition of the range to support a self-sustaining local population

Not Self-Sustaining

Determination of Amount of Habitat

A) Range Size

308,606 ha (100%)

B) Total Habitat Disturbance1

293,176 ha (95%)

C) Critical Habitat2

264,779 ha

1 Total Habitat Disturbance reflects loss of functional habitat. It will be more than the associated disturbance footprint (e.g. 100 ha footprint could lead to 400 ha loss of functional habitat).
2 Since the Total Habitat Disturbance is 95%, critical habitat is the existing habitat which is the area within the Little Smoky local population range that excludes fire disturbance within the last 40 years and unbuffered anthropogenic footprints.

C) Type: Biophysical attributes.

Table 1: Biophysical attributes of boreal caribou habitat in the Boreal Plains ecozone.
Type of selection Description

Broad scale

Late seral-stage (> 50 yrs old) conifer forest (jack pine, black spruce, tamarack), treed peatlands, muskegs or bogs, use dry islands in the middle of muskegs, with abundant lichens. Hilly or higher ground and small lakes.
Restricted primarily to peatland complexes.
Elevations of 1135 m.
Selected old (>40 yrs) burns.

Calving

Bogs and mature forests selected for calving as well as islands and small lakes.
Peatlands and stands dominated by black spruce and lowland black spruce stands within muskeg are used for calving.

Post-calving

Forest stands older than 50 yrs.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands and muskeg are also selected during summer. Use lichen and low muskeg vegetation.
In some areas, sites with abundant arboreal lichen are selected during summer.

Rutting

Mature forests.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands and muskeg during summer.

Winter

Treed peatlands, treed bog and treed fen and open fen complexes with > 50% peatland coverage with high abundance of lichens.
Use of small lakes, rock outcrops on lakes for lichen access.
Mature forest > 50 yrs old.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands.

Avoidance

Avoid upland and fen habitats, aspen dominated stands, immature stands and large rivers all year round.
Avoid matrix-type habitat, including areas with abundant shrubs, disturbed/fragemented habitats, hardwood/deciduous dominated forest stands, and edge habitat.
Avoid recent burns, main roads, seismic lines, well sites and areas with a high density of cut blocks.
Avoidance of water.

Table 2: Biophysical attributes of boreal caribou habitat in the Montane Cordilla ecozone.
Type of selection Description

Broad scale

Upland lodge pole pine, mixed conifer lodgepole pine/black spruce and treed muskeg areas with abundant lichens.
Open, pine dominated stands of 80 yrs or more.

Calving

Areas closer to cut-blocks with a high proportion of larch are selected during calving. Lower mountain peaks.

Post-calving

Homogeneous areas of conifer dominated stands.

Winter

Caribou use areas with a high proportion of larch and pine forests during winter.

Avoidance

Avoid areas with a large proportion of cut blocks.
Avoidance of seismic lines greatest during calving season.
Avoid white spruce stands which generally have a low abundance of lichens, aspen stands and large rivers.

D) Additional Information:

One of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

MODIS 2005 Landcover (250m Pixels) (Generated by CCRS)
Legend reclassified by EC.
With NTDB 1:250,000 Hydrology Layer.

Two of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

*Based on fire data provided by jurisdictions

Disturbance Type and Amount:

Burned Areas = 0.2%
Buffered3 Anthropogenic (no reservoirs) = 95%
Total Habitat Disturbance = 95%4

3 Buffered means a 500m buffer is applied to linear and polygonal disturbances.
4 Total Habitat Disturbance is non-overlapping which means anthropogenic disturbances and burned areas that overlap are not counted twice in the total.

Critical Habitat Identification: West Side Athabasca River (Alberta) 

The identification of critical habitat for boreal caribou is described by three factors for each local population: i) Location of habitat; ii) Amount of habitat; and iii) Type of habitat.

A) Location:Where critical habitat is found.

Figure 1: Keymap of the general location of the local population (in red).

Figure 1 is a map of Canada, showing the distribution of boreal caribou and highlighting the range for this specific local population.

Figure 2: The geographic boundary within which critical habitat is located (in grey).

Figure 2 is a zoomed in view of the local population range highlighted in Figure 1. Critical habitat is located within this geographic boundary.

B) Amount: Quantity of critical habitat.

Table 1: Range Attributes and the Amount of Habitat Required
Range Attributes

Range Size

1,572,652 ha

Population size

204-272

Population trend

Declining

Total Habitat Disturbance

1,085,130 ha

Range Assessment

Assessment of the likelihood of the current condition of the range to support a self-sustaining local population

Not Self-Sustaining

Determination of Amount of Habitat

A) Range Size

1,572,652 ha (100%)

B) Total Habitat Disturbance1

1,085,130 ha (69%)

C) Undisturbed Habitat, Initial Critical Habitat2

487,522 ha (31%)

1 Total Habitat Disturbance reflects loss of functional habitat. It will be more than the associated disturbance footprint (e.g. 100 ha footprint could lead to 400 ha loss of functional habitat).
2 The initial Critical Habitat is the current amount of undisturbed habitat. This may be decreased over time, if demonstrated that local populations are being stabilized.

C)  Type: Biophysical attributes.

Table 1: Biophysical attributes of boreal caribou habitat in the Boreal Plains ecozone.
Type of selection Description

Broad scale

Late seral-stage (> 50 yrs old) conifer forest (jack pine, black spruce, tamarack), treed peatlands, muskegs or bogs, use dry islands in the middle of muskegs, with abundant lichens. Hilly or higher ground and small lakes.
Restricted primarily to peatland complexes.
Elevations of 1135 m.
Selected old (>40 yrs) burns.

Calving

Bogs and mature forests selected for calving as well as islands and small lakes.
Peatlands and stands dominated by black spruce and lowland black spruce stands within muskeg are used for calving.

Post-calving

Forest stands older than 50 yrs.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands and muskeg are also selected during summer. Use lichen and low muskeg vegetation.
In some areas, sites with abundant arboreal lichen are selected during summer.

Rutting

Mature forests.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands and muskeg during summer.

Winter

Treed peatlands, treed bog and treed fen and open fen complexes with > 50% peatland coverage with high abundance of lichens.
Use of small lakes, rock outcrops on lakes for lichen access.
Mature forest > 50 yrs old.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands.

Avoidance

Avoid upland and fen habitats, aspen dominated stands, immature stands and large rivers all year round.
Avoid matrix-type habitat, including areas with abundant shrubs, disturbed/fragemented habitats, hardwood/deciduous dominated forest stands, and edge habitat.
Avoid recent burns, main roads, seismic lines, well sites and areas with a high density of cut blocks.
Avoidance of water.

D) Additional Information:

One of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

MODIS 2005 Landcover (250m Pixels) (Generated by CCRS)
Legend reclassified by EC.
With NTDB 1:250,000 Hydrology Layer.

Two of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

*Based on fire data provided by jurisdictions

Disturbance Type and Amount:

Burned Areas = 4%
Buffered3 Anthropogenic (no reservoirs) = 68%
Total Habitat Disturbance = 69%4

3 Buffered means a 500m buffer is applied to linear and polygonal disturbances.
4 Total Habitat Disturbance is non-overlapping which means anthropogenic disturbances and burned areas that overlap are not counted twice in the total.

Critical Habitat Identification: East Side Athabasca River (Alberta)

The identification of critical habitat for boreal caribou is described by three factors for each local population: i) Location of habitat; ii) Amount of habitat; and iii) Type of habitat.

A) Location:Where critical habitat is found.

Figure 1: Keymap of the general location of the local population (in red).

Figure 1 is a map of Canada, showing the distribution of boreal caribou and highlighting the range for this specific local population.

Figure 2: The geographic boundary within which critical habitat is located (in grey).

Figure 2 is a zoomed in view of the local population range highlighted in Figure 1. Critical habitat is located within this geographic boundary.

B) Amount: Quantity of critical habitat.

Table 1: Range Attributes and the Amount of Habitat Required
Range Attributes

Range Size

1,315,980 ha

Population size

90-150

Population trend

Declining

Total Habitat Disturbance

1,065,944 ha

Range Assessment

Assessment of the current condition of the range to support a self-sustaining local population

Not Self-Sustaining

Determination of Amount of Habitat

A) Range Size

1,315,980 ha (100%)

B) Total Habitat Disturbance1

1,065,944 ha (81%)

C) Undisturbed Habitat, Initial Critical Habitat2

250,036 ha (19%)

1 Total Habitat Disturbance reflects loss of functional habitat. It will be more than the associated disturbance footprint (e.g. 100 ha footprint could lead to 400 ha loss of functional habitat).
2 The initial Critical Habitat is the current amount of undisturbed habitat. This may be decreased over time, if demonstrated that local populations are being stabilized.

C) Type: Biophysical attributes.

Table 1: Biophysical attributes of boreal caribou habitat in the Boreal Plains ecozone.
Type of selection Description

Broad scale

Late seral-stage (> 50 yrs old) conifer forest (jack pine, black spruce, tamarack), treed peatlands, muskegs or bogs, use dry islands in the middle of muskegs, with abundant lichens. Hilly or higher ground and small lakes.
Restricted primarily to peatland complexes.
Elevations of 1135 m.
Selected old (>40 yrs) burns.

Calving

Bogs and mature forests selected for calving as well as islands and small lakes.
Peatlands and stands dominated by black spruce and lowland black spruce stands within muskeg are used for calving.

Post-calving

Forest stands older than 50 yrs.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands and muskeg are also selected during summer. Use lichen and low muskeg vegetation.
In some areas, sites with abundant arboreal lichen are selected during summer.

Rutting

Mature forests.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands and muskeg during summer.

Winter

Treed peatlands, treed bog and treed fen and open fen complexes with > 50% peatland coverage with high abundance of lichens.
Use of small lakes, rock outcrops on lakes for lichen access.
Mature forest > 50 yrs old.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands.

Avoidance

Avoid upland and fen habitats, aspen dominated stands, immature stands and large rivers all year round.
Avoid matrix-type habitat, including areas with abundant shrubs, disturbed/fragemented habitats, hardwood/deciduous dominated forest stands, and edge habitat.
Avoid recent burns, main roads, seismic lines, well sites and areas with a high density of cut blocks.
Avoidance of water.

D) Additional Information:

One of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

MODIS 2005 Landcover (250m Pixels) (Generated by CCRS)
Legend reclassified by EC.
With NTDB 1:250,000 Hydrology Layer.

Two of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

*Based on fire data provided by jurisdictions

Disturbance Type and Amount:

Burned Areas = 26%
Buffered3 Anthropogenic (no reservoirs) = 77%
Total Habitat Disturbance = 81%4

3 Buffered means a 500m buffer is applied to linear and polygonal disturbances.
4 Total Habitat Disturbance is non-overlapping which means anthropogenic disturbances and burned areas that overlap are not counted twice in the total.

Critical Habitat Identification: Cold Lake (Alberta) 

The identification of critical habitat for boreal caribou is described by three factors for each local population: i) Location of habitat; ii) Amount of habitat; and iii) Type of habitat.

A) Location:Where critical habitat is found.

Figure 1 is a map of Canada, showing the distribution of boreal caribou and highlighting the range for this specific local population.

Figure 2: The geographic boundary within which critical habitat is located (in grey).

 

B) Amount: Quantity of critical habitat.

Table 1: Range Attributes and the Amount of Habitat Required
Range Attributes

Range Size

672,422 ha

Population size

150

Population trend

Declining

Total Habitat Disturbance

571,559 ha

Range Assessment

Assessment of the current condition of the range to support a self-sustaining local population

Not Self-Sustaining

Determination of Amount of Habitat

A) Range Size

672,422 ha (100%)

B) Total Habitat Disturbance1

571,559 ha (85%)

C) Undisturbed Habitat, Initial Critical Habitat2

100,863 ha (15%)

1 Total Habitat Disturbance reflects loss of functional habitat. It will be more than the associated disturbance footprint (e.g. 100 ha footprint could lead to 400 ha loss of functional habitat).
2 The initial Critical Habitat is the current amount of undisturbed habitat. This may be decreased over time, if demonstrated that local populations are being stabilized.

C) Type: Biophysical attributes.

Table 1: Biophysical attributes of boreal caribou habitat in the Boreal Plains ecozone.
Type of selection Description

Broad scale

Late seral-stage (> 50 yrs old) conifer forest (jack pine, black spruce, tamarack), treed peatlands, muskegs or bogs, use dry islands in the middle of muskegs, with abundant lichens. Hilly or higher ground and small lakes.
Restricted primarily to peatland complexes.
Elevations of 1135 m.
Selected old (>40 yrs) burns.

Calving

Bogs and mature forests selected for calving as well as islands and small lakes.
Peatlands and stands dominated by black spruce and lowland black spruce stands within muskeg are used for calving.

Post-calving

Forest stands older than 50 yrs.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands and muskeg are also selected during summer. Use lichen and low muskeg vegetation.
In some areas, sites with abundant arboreal lichen are selected during summer.

Rutting

Mature forests.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands and muskeg during summer.

Winter

Treed peatlands, treed bog and treed fen and open fen complexes with > 50% peatland coverage with high abundance of lichens.
Use of small lakes, rock outcrops on lakes for lichen access.
Mature forest > 50 yrs old.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands.

Avoidance

Avoid upland and fen habitats, aspen dominated stands, immature stands and large rivers all year round.
Avoid matrix-type habitat, including areas with abundant shrubs, disturbed/fragemented habitats, hardwood/deciduous dominated forest stands, and edge habitat.
Avoid recent burns, main roads, seismic lines, well sites and areas with a high density of cut blocks.
Avoidance of water.

D) Additional Information:

MODIS 2005 Landcover (250m Pixels) (Generated by CCRS)
Legend reclassified by EC.
With NTDB 1:250,000 Hydrology Layer.


*Based on fire data provided by jurisdictions

Disturbance Type and Amount:

Burned Areas = 32%
Buffered3 Anthropogenic (no reservoirs) = 72%
Total Habitat Disturbance = 85%4

3 Buffered means a 500m buffer is applied to linear and polygonal disturbances.
4 Total Habitat Disturbance is non-overlapping which means anthropogenic disturbances and burned areas that overlap are not counted twice in the total.

Critical Habitat Identification: Nipisi (Alberta) 

The identification of critical habitat for boreal caribou is described by three factors for each local population: i) Location of habitat; ii) Amount of habitat; and iii) Type of habitat.

A) Location:Where critical habitat is found.

Figure 1: Keymap of the general location of the local population (in red).

Figure 1 is a map of Canada, showing the distribution of boreal caribou and highlighting the range for this specific local population.

Figure 2: The geographic boundary within which critical habitat is located (in grey).

Figure 2 is a zoomed in view of the local population range highlighted in Figure 1. Critical habitat is located within this geographic boundary.

B) Amount: Quantity of critical habitat.

Table 1: Range Attributes and the Amount of Habitat Required
Range Attributes

Range Size

210,771 ha

Population size

55

Population trend

Unknown

Total Habitat Disturbance

143,324 ha

Range Assessment

Assessment of the current condition of the range to support a self-sustaining local population

Not Self-Sustaining

Determination of Amount of Habitat

A) Range Size

210,771 ha (100%)

B) Total Habitat Disturbance1

143,324 ha (68%)

C) Undisturbed Habitat, Initial Critical Habitat2

67,447 ha (32%)

1 Total Habitat Disturbance reflects loss of functional habitat. It will be more than the associated disturbance footprint (e.g. 100 ha footprint could lead to 400 ha loss of functional habitat).
2 The initial Critical Habitat is the current amount of undisturbed habitat. This may be decreased over time, if demonstrated that local populations are being stabilized.

C) Type: Biophysical attributes.

Table 1: Biophysical attributes of boreal caribou habitat in the Boreal Plains ecozone.
Type of selection Description

Broad scale

Late seral-stage (> 50 yrs old) conifer forest (jack pine, black spruce, tamarack), treed peatlands, muskegs or bogs, use dry islands in the middle of muskegs, with abundant lichens. Hilly or higher ground and small lakes.
Restricted primarily to peatland complexes.
Elevations of 1135 m.
Selected old (>40 yrs) burns.

Calving

Bogs and mature forests selected for calving as well as islands and small lakes.
Peatlands and stands dominated by black spruce and lowland black spruce stands within muskeg are used for calving.

Post-calving

Forest stands older than 50 yrs.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands and muskeg are also selected during summer. Use lichen and low muskeg vegetation.
In some areas, sites with abundant arboreal lichen are selected during summer.

Rutting

Mature forests.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands and muskeg during summer.

Winter

Treed peatlands, treed bog and treed fen and open fen complexes with > 50% peatland coverage with high abundance of lichens.
Use of small lakes, rock outcrops on lakes for lichen access.
Mature forest > 50 yrs old.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands.

Avoidance

Avoid upland and fen habitats, aspen dominated stands, immature stands and large rivers all year round.
Avoid matrix-type habitat, including areas with abundant shrubs, disturbed/fragemented habitats, hardwood/deciduous dominated forest stands, and edge habitat.
Avoid recent burns, main roads, seismic lines, well sites and areas with a high density of cut blocks.
Avoidance of water.

D) Additional Information:

One of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

MODIS 2005 Landcover (250m Pixels) (Generated by CCRS)
Legend reclassified by EC.
With NTDB 1:250,000 Hydrology Layer.

Two of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

*Based on fire data provided by jurisdictions

Disturbance Type and Amount:

Burned Areas = 6%
Buffered3 Anthropogenic (no reservoirs) = 66%
Total Habitat Disturbance = 68%4

3 Buffered means a 500m buffer is applied to linear and polygonal disturbances.
4 Total Habitat Disturbance is non-overlapping which means anthropogenic disturbances and burned areas that overlap are not counted twice in the total.

Critical Habitat Identification: Slave Lake (Alberta)

The identification of critical habitat for boreal caribou is described by three factors for each local population: i) Location of habitat; ii) Amount of habitat; and iii) Type of habitat.

A) Location:Where critical habitat is found.

Figure 1: Keymap of the general location of the local population (in red).

Figure 1 is a map of Canada, showing the distribution of boreal caribou and highlighting the range for this specific local population.

Figure 2: The geographic boundary within which critical habitat is located (in grey).

Figure 2 is a zoomed in view of the local population range highlighted in Figure 1. Critical habitat is located within this geographic boundary.

B) Amount: Quantity of critical habitat.

Table 1: Range Attributes and the Amount of Habitat Required
Range Attributes

Range Size

151,904 ha

Population size

65

Population trend

Unknown

Total Habitat Disturbance

121,523 ha

Range Assessment

Assessment of the current condition of the range to support a self-sustaining local population

Not Self-Sustaining

Determination of Amount of Habitat

A) Range Size

151,904 ha (100%)

B) Total Habitat Disturbance1

121,523 ha (80%)

C) Undisturbed Habitat, Initial Critical Habitat2

30,381 ha (20%)

1 Total Habitat Disturbance reflects loss of functional habitat. It will be more than the associated disturbance footprint (e.g. 100 ha footprint could lead to 400 ha loss of functional habitat).
2 The initial Critical Habitat is the current amount of undisturbed habitat. This may be decreased over time, if demonstrated that local populations are being stabilized.

C) Type: Biophysical attributes.

Table 1: Biophysical attributes of boreal caribou habitat in the Boreal Plains ecozone.
Type of selection Description

Broad scale

Late seral-stage (> 50 yrs old) conifer forest (jack pine, black spruce, tamarack), treed peatlands, muskegs or bogs, use dry islands in the middle of muskegs, with abundant lichens. Hilly or higher ground and small lakes.
Restricted primarily to peatland complexes.
Elevations of 1135 m.
Selected old (>40 yrs) burns.

Calving

Bogs and mature forests selected for calving as well as islands and small lakes.
Peatlands and stands dominated by black spruce and lowland black spruce stands within muskeg are used for calving.

Post-calving

Forest stands older than 50 yrs.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands and muskeg are also selected during summer. Use lichen and low muskeg vegetation.
In some areas, sites with abundant arboreal lichen are selected during summer.

Rutting

Mature forests.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands and muskeg during summer.

Winter

Treed peatlands, treed bog and treed fen and open fen complexes with > 50% peatland coverage with high abundance of lichens.
Use of small lakes, rock outcrops on lakes for lichen access.
Mature forest > 50 yrs old.
Upland black spruce/jack pine forests, lowland black spruce, young jack pine and open and treed peatlands.

Avoidance

Avoid upland and fen habitats, aspen dominated stands, immature stands and large rivers all year round.
Avoid matrix-type habitat, including areas with abundant shrubs, disturbed/fragemented habitats, hardwood/deciduous dominated forest stands, and edge habitat.
Avoid recent burns, main roads, seismic lines, well sites and areas with a high density of cut blocks.
Avoidance of water.

D) Additional Information:

One of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

MODIS 2005 Landcover (250m Pixels) (Generated by CCRS)
Legend reclassified by EC.
With NTDB 1:250,000 Hydrology Layer.

Two of two additional maps of the local population range are provided in this section. The first is a landcover map detailing the ecological composition of the range. The second is a disturbance map which reflects the areas of fire disturbance, polygonal disturbance, and linear disturbance within the local population range. Below this map is a summary of the percentage of fire and buffered anthropogenic disturbances, as well as the percent total habitat disturbance for the range.

*Based on fire data provided by jurisdictions

Disturbance Type and Amount:

Burned Areas = 37%
Buffered3 Anthropogenic (no reservoirs) = 63%
Total Habitat Disturbance = 80%4

3 Buffered means a 500m buffer is applied to linear and polygonal disturbances.
4 Total Habitat Disturbance is non-overlapping which means anthropogenic disturbances and burned areas that overlap are not counted twice in the total.